10 LEVEL RESOURCES

The Intentional & Direct Teaching of Essential Citizenship Competencies

CITIZENSHIP STUDIES LEVEL 10: ENGAGED CITIZENS

Part A

Broad Area of Citizenship: History/Native Studies/Social Studies

Engaged Citizens question, critically examine, advocate, and defend rights and responsibilities of democracy at local, national, and global levels.  They strive to understand the impact of ideology on issues and actions connected with diversity, rights and responsibilities, and various levels of governance.

High school students analyze and explore the concept of Ideology:

  • by investigating a range of ideologies and their application and impact on citizenship at the national level (10);
  • by evaluating the impacts of ideology, historically and contemporary, at international levels (20), and,
  • by examining, analyzing and de-constructing the concept of ideology as a tool for understanding how it impacts Canadian (30):
    • beliefs and actions, nationally and globally; and,
    • participation as a citizen from a national and global perspective.

Overview and Desired Results of Citizenship Study

Students recognize the role that ideology plays in the political, social, and economic decision-making process and in the social organizations around which society structures itself.  They investigate various worldviews and the impact of worldview on an individuals’ and society’s’ beliefs.  Students extend their investigations to consider historically how worldview has impacted and continues to impact the organization and actions of society.  By investigating the concepts of privilege and marginalization and the reasons why they still exist, students consider the impact these concepts have had on history and society.

10

  • Social Studies students will consider how ideology influenced the nature of our institutions for political and economic decision-making.
  • History students will consider how historical events of the 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries influenced worldviews and how worldviews influenced historical events.
  • Native Studies students will consider how Indigenous worldviews influence ideology.

Enduring Understandings of Citizenship Study

Students will use this information to understand that:

  • Injustices of today have roots in the past.
  • Canadian society is challenged to manage the co-existence of diverse worldviews.
  • Canadian citizens work to achieve a balance between rights and responsibilities through learning and action.
  • Canadian society has inequities and elimination of these is beneficial for all Canadians.
  • For each individual, becoming aware of racism and other social oppression in Canadian society is an evolutionary process and a precursor to change.
  • As citizens of local, national, and global communities, Canadians are conscious, self-reflective, and critical of their own beliefs and actions and seek to make positive change.
  • Citizens show flexibility of mind.
  • Enduring understandings and questions stimulate thinking, guide the inquiry and are linked to outcomes.
  • These questions point to the “big ideas’ in the area of inquiry and should be considered and reconsidered as the inquiry progresses.
  • Deliberation of these understandings forms the evidence of learning at the end of study.

Knowledge and Skill Development

Students will know:

  • The definition of ideology and its role in society.
  • Characteristics and assumptions of ideologies along the ideological spectrum.
  • Historical and contemporary ideological issues.
  • The relationship between worldview and ideologies.
  • The rights and responsibilities of individuals.

Students will be able to:

  • Make inferences about ideologies based on responses to a variety of issues.
  • Identify ideological assumptions.
  • Examine multiple perspectives.

Essential Questions

  • In what ways is ideology useful in guiding human beliefs and behaviours?
  • What are the limitations of ideology in guiding beliefs and behaviours?
  • How does ideology influence our view of social justice?
  • How does a society balance opposing constructs i.e. freedom and order, individual rights and collective rights, hierarchy and equality; and, what factors influence the quest for finding this balance?
  • Has Canadian society been organized to reflect our national values and beliefs?
Essential Questions are open-ended questions that are continually revisited, encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study, form the evidence of understanding and frame the assessment at the end of the study.

Saskatchewan Curriculum Concept Connections

This section connects teachers and students to the concepts explored through Social Sciences Studies:  Social Studies, History, and Native Studies.  General outcomes connected to objectives are identified.  It is the opinion of the development committee that the outcomes incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore these citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science area.

Students will:

  • Investigate various worldviews and the impact they have on individuals’ and societies’ beliefs and institutions;
  • Investigate how societies deal with conflicting perspectives or ideologies about the best way to organize and direct society;
  • Examine and evaluate the political processes within society that are necessary to resolve differences over the basis (ideology) on which decisions are made for society;
  • Assess the outcomes when competing groups, each with a power base and each desiring decisions, try to satisfy their wants and needs;
  • Understand that Canada’s worldview includes First Nations, Métis, and Inuit perspective;
  • Identify issues that affect the identity of Indigenous people including:
    • stereotyping and misinformation about historical and contemporary Indigenous societies;
    • recognition of bias, and strategies to positively address biases, stereotypes, prejudice and racism;
    • identification and appreciation of Indigenous worldview; and,
  • Investigate the constructs of privilege and marginalization and examine the impacts these concepts have on history and society.

Part B Learning Plan – 10 Social Studies, History, Native Studies

This section gives a brief overview of the students’ learning path, inquiries students may consider in class, and connections to larger concepts.

Inquiries are identified and connections to Big Ideas are noted.  Teachers may choose any inquiry or combine inquiries to use the approach that resonates best with their students.

The citizenship inquiries incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences by exploring historical and contemporary issues through a number of viewpoints, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science areas. 

Suggested inquiries may be studied in any order according to student interests.

Inquiry

If individuality is so important, why do we live together in groups?

  • Why are there consistencies in societal organization and societal issues?

Big Ideas Explored:

  • Why people choose to live in societies.
  • The impact of various worldviews on societal structures and organization.
  • Contrasting perspectives of:
    • freedom and order
    • individual rights and collective rights
    • hierarchy and equality
    • resources: protect or exploit
  • The impacts of a variety of ideologies on decision-making.
  • The responsibilities individuals and groups collectively assume for one another.

Is privilege and marginalization inevitable in society?

  • What impact did/does privilege and marginalization have on history and the development of society?
  • What impact does worldview have on society’s beliefs and organizational structure?
    • Whose worldviews compose Canadian worldview?

Big Ideas Explored:

  • The constructs of privilege and marginalization and:
    • the impact these concepts have had on historical and present society
    • the forces/structures that perpetuate privilege and marginalization
  • The impacts that various worldviews have on individuals’ and societies’ beliefs and organization.
  • Canada’s worldview includes First Nations, Métis and Inuit perspectives but often accurate, representative interpretation is misconstrued so that First Nations, Métis, and Inuit perspectives are often misrepresented or not represented in Canadian worldview.

Questions to Guide Inquiry

Essential questions are posed here to frame the context for student thinking and have students begin thinking about the topic. Answers to essential questions establish a baseline regarding student understanding as they identify the basic knowledge that students have and give teachers an idea of what students will need to learn to explore these outcomes. The essential questions and inquiries incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore these citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science area.
Teacher Note

Essential questions and guiding questions are posed to support teachers as they facilitate students’ exploration of the inquiry.  Teachers are encouraged to adjust the wording, omit or add questions as they choose.

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions  

  • In what ways is ideology useful in guiding human beliefs and behavior?
    • How do an individual’s values and beliefs affect their view of society?
    • How does the organization of society reflect current worldviews and beliefs?
    • How does societal organization change over time and what factors cause these changes?
  • What are the limitations of ideology in guiding beliefs and behavior?
    • What is the place for ideological thinking in contemporary society?
    • What were the influences of ideological thinking on historical societies?
    • What impact has ideological thinking had on Indigenous societies?
  • How does ideology influence our view of social justice?
    • What is the relationship between ideology and approaches to social justice?
  • How does society achieve a balance between the responsibilities of citizens to society and society’s responsibilities to its citizens?
    • What is society’s responsibility to you?
    • What is your responsibility to society?
  • Has Canadian society been organized to reflect our national values and beliefs?
    • What do Canadians believe about marginalization?
    • What impact did/does privilege and marginalization have historically and currently on society?
    • What happens when members of society continue to be marginalized?

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section indicates ways to introduce the concepts and helps teachers gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present questions and allow students to think about and talk about. Student answers will give teachers an understanding of the amount of specific or incidental teaching required to explore the big ideas.  Vocabulary is introduced and noted here. This section frames the “We do” portion of the lesson where teachers guide the initial structure of the inquiry.
Teacher Note

  • Surface student thinking in response to the prompts or hook questions posed.
  • Add questions from students; adjust the wording of questions as needed.
  • Chart or record student thinking for later reflection in a ‘Before, During, After’ format to note changes in student thinking.
Examining Societal Structures 

This inquiry looks at the reasons and ways that individuals organize themselves so they can live together and the issues that communities must address in order to be successful.

Inquiry

If individuality is so important, why do we live together in groups?

  • Why are there consistencies in societal organization and societal issues?
  • Is privilege and marginalization inevitable in society?

Hook Questions – Think about… Talk about…

  • How does a society organize itself?
  • What characteristics do societies share? Why are there differences?
  • How do we balance individual and community interests? What ideologies come into play?
  • What impact does worldview have on the organization of communities?
  • How were/are ideological differences resolved?
  • Why does privilege and marginalization exist?

Hook questions get students thinking about the issues in the inquiry and can also form the framework to guide student direction in exploration of the inquiry.

Historical Thinking Connections  

Historical Significance: How do we decide what is important to learn about the past?

Primary Source Evidence: How do we know what we know about the past?

Cause and Consequence: Why do events happen and what are their impacts?

Historical Perspectives: How can we better understand the people of the past?

Ethical Dimension: How can history help us to live in the present?

Continuity and Change: How can we make sense of the complex flows of history?

DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING
This section is the core of the inquiry.  It suggests the main activity(ies) involved.  In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the essential questions.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities. This forms the “We do” “They do” section of the inquiry where students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations.
Throughout this study, it is critical that teachers help students to step back to see the big picture. 

  • What themes are emerging?
  • What are the similarities and differences?
  • Why do students think this is so?

The independence level of the class, will determine how much teacher direction is required to do this.

Surface students’ understandings on ideology, its purpose and effects, historically and on contemporary society.  (See part C for resources) Introduce the concept of a range within an ideology or range of thinking within any of the suggested topics of exploration and the impacts that range has on implementation of societal structures.

 

Students are making connections between societal structures and ideology and why marginalization continues.  Identify questions students wish to explore.  When students find issues, from very different perspectives, then overarching themes can be identified.

 

There are many avenues of inquiry that would allow students to examine the influences on the development of societal structures within the suggested topics of exploration.

 

Possible Topics of Exploration

 

  • Impacts of range of perspective in Ideologies
    • Political Ideology Spectrum
      • freedom and order,
      • individual rights and collective rights,
      • hierarchy and equality
    • Economic Ideology Spectrum
      • Socialism – Capitalism
      • Cooperation – Competition
      • Economic control – Economic freedom
      • Resources use – Protect – Exploit
    • Indigenous Worldviews
    • Religious Structures
    • Colonialism
    • Social Structures
    • Governance Structures
      • Decision-making
      • Law
    • Distribution of Wealth
    • Privilege and Marginalization
    • Application of Justice

 

Essential Questions:  Guiding Questions

 

In what ways is ideology useful in guiding human beliefs and behavior?

 

  • How do an individual’s values and beliefs affect their view of society?
  • How does the organization of society reflect current worldviews and beliefs?
  • How does societal organization change over time and what factors cause these changes?

 

What are the limitations of ideology in guiding beliefs and behavior?

 

  • What is the place for and effects of ideological thinking in contemporary/ historical /Indigenous society?

 

How does ideology influence our view of social justice?

 

  • What is the relationship between ideology and approaches to social justice?

 

How does society achieve a balance between the responsibilities of citizens to society and society’s responsibilities to its citizens?

 

  • What is society’s responsibility to you?
  • What is your responsibility to society?

 

Has Canadian society been organized to reflect our national values and beliefs?

 

  • What impact does/did privilege and marginalization have historically and currently on society?
  • What happens when members of society continue to be marginalized?

 

Reflect back on essential questions.  What are students thinking now?  How has their thinking changed?

 

  • What are the responsibilities of society to its citizens?
  • What are the responsibilities of citizens to society?
  • Who is responsible for the decisions made in a society/community?
  • Who must accept the consequences for the decisions made?
  • What safeguards are in place to make sure decisions are fair and equitable?
  • Whose perspective is reflected in societal decision-making?
    • What are the outcomes of ongoing marginalization?
    • What is required for change in marginalized populations?

Inquiry

Is privilege and marginalization inevitable in society?

  • What impact does worldview have on society’s beliefs and organizational structure?
  • What impact did/does privilege and marginalization have on historical and current society?

This part of the inquiry asks students to extend their research to understand the constructs of privilege and marginalization.  How are these concepts apparent in their topic of exploration?

  • What worldviews are evident in your research?
  • What impact do they have on an individuals’ and society’s beliefs and organization?
    • i.e. Assess how resources are distributed.
  • How are differing worldviews accommodated?
  • What evidence is there of privilege and marginalization?  What is the impact either historically or in current society?

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

Strategies to develop and explore inquiries include:

  • Surfacing student thinking, posting, and then reflecting on thinking to note how thinking has changed and what has caused the changes.
  • Jigsaw strategy approach: Students, individually or in groups, explore similar questions, present their findings to the group. The teacher helps students to note similarities, differences, and themes.  Students are encouraged to develop summary statements to clarify their thinking and describe new learning.
  • Reflect on initial thinking to note how thinking has changed.  What evidence supports the new learning? 

Additional Inquiry Suggestions

The same inquiry questions can be used to explore this inquiry.

  • If individuality is so important why do we live in groups?
  • Why are there consistencies in societal organization and issues?
  • Is marginalization inevitable in society?
  • What are your rights? What are your freedoms? (Brainstorm)
  • What limits your freedoms?
  • What are our Freedoms in Canada? What are our Rights?
  • Give a definition of rights and freedoms.
  • Give examples to support your definitions.
    • Are those rights and freedoms applied equitably?

Go back to brainstormed list and categorize according to Individual Rights and Collective Rights. Develop a working definition of Individual Rights and Collective Rights.  Expand lists based on new information from definition.

Directly teach students about ideology and the range of thinking within an ideology.  See the resource section C for supports.

  • Where do students think they might fall on the political or economic spectrum?

Examine a variety of policy documents.   Within those policies:

  • Identify your rights and responsibilities within the documents.
  • What do these rights and responsibilities say about what the people who developed these believe?
  • What ideology is evident?
  • How are rights, freedoms, and responsibilities evident?
Consider interviewing representative people as research option to reading text

Policy documents

  • Student handbook
  • Education Act
  • Human Rights Codes
  • Canada’s Multicultural policy

Investigate the Charter of Rights and Freedoms

  • Select specific Rights and Freedoms from the Charter and have students examine from the perspective of left, center, and right of the political ideological spectrum.
  • Have student groups choose a particular perspective: left, center, or right, and:
  • determine their different views of human nature
  • the role of government
  • priorities for society
  • hypothesize the impact that would have on the Charter of Rights or Freedoms.
    • Present their perspective to class.
    • Where are these ideological impacts evident in their world?

After the presentations have student groups create a Charter of Responsibilities under which they would like to live:

  • That corresponds with the Charter of Rights and Freedoms from their chosen perspective (right, left, center).
  • Identify the ideology they have chosen and justify their Charter of Responsibilities perspective.
  • What kinds of issues or concerns did students have to consider in developing their Charter of Responsibilities?
  • How were the student’s personal beliefs and values reflected in their Charter of Responsibilities?
  • How did they balance individual and community interests?
  • Is privilege and marginalization addressed in their Charter?

Vocabulary

  • Ideology
  • Conservatism
  • Liberalism
  • Socialism

APPLY AND EXTEND KNOWLEDGE

This section includes ideas to extend the inquiry or apply concepts explored. This section may also include additional reflective questions to promote student connection to the topic.  This forms the “You do” section of the inquiry – may be “you do it collaboratively” or “you do it alone”.   Invite students to extend their thinking beyond the classroom discussions and inquiry experiences.  Pose additional reflective questions that have been raised to encourage critical and creative thinking.  
Use the following examples of incidents from history that infringed rights and freedoms.

  • The Indian Act
  • Residential Schools,
  • The Reserve System
  • Location and Movement/Relocation of reserves in Canada’s north
  • Movement/Relocation of blacks in Halifax – 1962

Have students:

  • Identify the rights and freedoms that were impacted.
  • What does this say about the beliefs of the people that allowed this to happen?
  • What might be their ideological views? Justify your thinking.
  • What kinds of worldviews/beliefs and behaviour were required for these policies to be implemented? -By the state/government?
  • What alternate policies could have been implemented that would be a more just policy?
    • What kinds of worldviews/beliefs and behaviour were required for these policies to be implemented? -By the people?
  • Assume the persona of a citizen from the era discussed.
    • What could you have done differently to influence the government? Or
    • Suggest changes to the policy, and how you would influence the government to adopt those changes.

EVIDENCE OF LEARNING

This section suggests ways in which students may demonstrate their understanding.  Ideal demonstrations will be in authentic performance tasks.  Each citizenship study may have its own smaller assessment piece or be compiled to support one larger performance task assessment.  Assessment pieces vary, but should allow students to demonstrate their understanding in a variety of ways.
Have students demonstrate what they have learned about the questions.

How has their thinking changed from their initial thinking? 

What evidence do they have to support their thinking?

Have students use the following prompts to connect to or address any of the essential questions, the enduring understandings, or the inquiry questions to demonstrate their evidence of learning.

  • What do you think now about…?
  • What has caused your thinking to change?
  • What evidence supports your thinking?
  • Why is this information important to know?
  • How will you use this information?

Inquiry

If individuality is so important, why do we live together in groups?

Why are there consistencies in societal organization and societal issues?

Is privilege and marginalization inevitable in society?

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions 

  • In what ways is ideology useful in guiding human beliefs and behavior?
    • How do an individual’s values and beliefs affect their view of society?
    • How does the organization of society reflect current worldviews and beliefs?
    • How does societal organization change over time and what factors cause these changes?
  • What are the limitations of ideology in guiding beliefs and behavior?
    • What is the place for ideological thinking in contemporary society?
    • What were the influences of ideological thinking on historical societies?
    • What impact has ideological thinking had on Indigenous societies?

Have students use the following prompts to connect to or address any of the essential questions, the enduring understandings, or the inquiry questions to demonstrate their evidence of learning.

  • What do you think now about…?
  • What has caused your thinking to change?
  • What evidence supports your thinking?
  • Why is this information important to know?
  • How will you use this information?

Inquiry

If individuality is so important, why do we live together in groups?

Why are there consistencies in societal organization and societal issues?

Is privilege and marginalization inevitable in society?

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions 

  • In what ways is ideology useful in guiding human beliefs and behavior?
    • How do an individual’s values and beliefs affect their view of society?
    • How does the organization of society reflect current worldviews and beliefs?
    • How does societal organization change over time and what factors cause these changes?
  • What are the limitations of ideology in guiding beliefs and behavior?
    • What is the place for ideological thinking in contemporary society?
    • What were the influences of ideological thinking on historical societies?
    • What impact has ideological thinking had on Indigenous societies?
Enduring Understandings

  • Injustices of today have roots in the past.
  • Canadian society is challenged to manage the co-existence of diverse worldviews.
  • Canadian citizens work to achieve a balance between rights and responsibilities through learning and action.
  • Canadian society has inequities and elimination of these is beneficial for all Canadians.
  • For each individual, becoming aware of racism in Canadian society is an evolutionary process and a precursor to change.
  • As citizens of local, national, and global communities, Canadians are conscious, self-reflective, and critical of their own beliefs and actions and seek to make positive change.
  • Citizens show flexibility of mind.
  • How does ideology influence our view of social justice?
    • What is the relationship between ideology and approaches to social justice?
    • Who accepts responsibilities for decisions made in society?
    • What safeguards are in place to ensure fair and equitable decisions?
    • Whose perspective is reflected in societal decision-making?
  • How does society achieve a balance between the responsibilities of citizens to society and society’s responsibilities to its citizens?
    • What is society’s responsibility to you?
    • What is your responsibility to society?
  • Has Canadian society been organized to reflect our national values and beliefs?
    • What do Canadians believe about marginalization?
    • What impact did/does privilege and marginalization have historically and currently on society?
    • What happens when members of society continue to be marginalized?
    • What is required for change in marginalized populations?

STUDENT CITIZENSHIP JOURNAL OPPORTUNITIES

Students will continue to explore their understanding of their role as a Canadian citizen and reflect on their perspective in an Ongoing Journal.  Consider opportunities for video journaling.  Art may be included throughout the journal to support student thinking; some to accompany the journal entry and some that are random drawings and sketching. The journal entries are a record of the student’s thinking and chronicle the student’s changing views of citizenship.

Students are keeping a Citizenship Journal to reflect upon their developing views of citizenship.  This section provides prompts for student journals.  Students are invited to choose one that interests them or propose their own. Students can also respond to any of the essential questions.

Students are encouraged to respond using a variety of genres.

  • What is the moral use of power? Does the end justify the means?
  • Is there still a place for ideology in society?
  • How has ideology driven change in the world?
  • How does ideology affect you on a daily basis?
  • Can a nation of individuals share a common ideology?
  • How would a government free of ideology function?
  • What would need to happen for marginalization and privilege to disappear? How would you achieve that?

Part C

Inquiry Resources

Cross Curricular Connections

The Saskatchewan Ministry of Education English Language Arts Curriculum states:

“If students are to become lifelong learners, develop a sense of self and connection to others, and become engaged citizens and achieve the Cross-curricular Competencies and the outcomes for English language arts, students require meaningful, authentic contexts for learning. Students need many opportunities to explore questions and concerns about themselves and about the world.”

The Concentus Citizenship Education Resources provide teachers with a framework of inquires with which to further students’ explorations of their roles and responsibilities as Canadian citizens, in authentic contexts.  These inquiries are directly connected to Social Sciences (History, Native Studies, Social Studies) foundational outcomes and the broad goals of learning identified above.  Specific connections to English Language Arts and Treaty Education are identified and suggested as starting points for teachers.

English Language Arts B10 (Unit 1):

Contexts/Themes

Equity and Ethics (Who and What is Right?; Empowerment; Degrees of Responsibility; Rights and Responsibilities; Justice and Fairness)

Essential Questions

  • What are some of the factors that create inequalities? How have inequalities shaped our world?
  • What is my role and responsibility in addressing inequalities?
  • What is the relationship between rights and responsibilities?
  • Who decides what is right? Why should we do the right thing? How can I act on the right thing?
  • How does one become an ethical person?

English Language Arts B10: (Unit 2):

Contexts/Themes

The World Around and Within Us (Perspectives; Diversity of Being; The Natural and the Constructed Worlds; Individuals and Communities; Stewardship)

Essential Questions

  • What are our relationships and responsibilities to the communities and environments of which we are a part? How are we related to and responsible for natural and constructed environments? For technology?
  • Why is it important to be in touch with the world?
  • The world is a difficult text: how can we read it and respond to it critically?
  • How can I have a positive influence upon my world?
  • How must we show respect and care for the community of life?

Treaty Education

  • TR10: Examine contemporary economic implications of Treaties for all the people of Saskatchewan and other Canadian jurisdictions.
  • SI10: Analyze the spirit and intent of Treaties and investigate the extent to which they have been fulfilled.
  • HC10: Investigate opportunities and challenges faced by First Nations and the Government of Canada in relation to governance issues.
  • TPP10: Investigate issues related to resource development and Treaties.

Further Investigation Suggestions

  • Have the students form groups and choose an ideology they would like to study. Create a political party and develop a political campaign based on a specific ideology. Include:
    • the party’s perspective on a specific set of issues, link to specific ideology
    • the campaign’s media strategy,
      • a strategy to dispel or downplay other ideological campaigns,
    • an analysis of the party’s target voters
    • a reflection of the process
    • a prediction of how the campaign will play out
      • the strengths and weaknesses of the campaign’s approach and positions,
      • potential problems the party will face, etc.
    • the worldview reflected in the ideology
  • Compare the conflict in the French Revolution to the struggle between First Nations, Métis and non-First Nations in the British North American Act.
    • Examine the concepts of privilege and marginalization in society and the struggle to re-organize the structure of society
    • Compare the similarities and differences in the process and the result.
    • Why did one succeed and one fail?
  • Have students identify their beliefs on different social, political and economic issues (based on a range of ideological options), and use these beliefs to help the students narrow down their ideological worldview.
    • Identify where they fall on their ideological spectrum, tell why, and give evidence of their position according to their activities they belong to and behaviours they demonstrate. 

Ideology in Governing Bodies

What ideology is evident in the current government? Provincially, Federally

Identify:

  • Role of government
  • Priorities for society
  • Policies to address marginalized people
  • Placement on the political and economic ideological spectrum

Glossary

The following definitions are found at: Vocabulary.com

“Text from Vocabulary.com, Copyright ©1998-2016 Thinkmap, Inc.  All rights reserved.”

 

Anarchism

Best government is no government

Everything about governments is repressive and so governments should be abolished

Absolutism

Single rules has control over every aspect of government

Includes titles of chieftain, king, shah, pharaoh, emperor

Strong sense of order, clear cut law of nature, wisdom of traditional values and institutions

Liberalism

Individual takes priority over society

Individuals have the right to choose

Equality – no person morally or politically superior to others

Rationalism – people capable of rational thought

Progress – traditions kept only if they have value

Free market – creates wealth,

Capitalism

An economic system featuring the private ownership of business wealth and the free and unfettered operation of trade markets.

Capital is usually understood to be money that is put into a business, accumulated by a business, or used in some way to produce more money. In a capitalist economy, the capital is owned by private individuals, as opposed to the government or state (as in socialism or communism). Another important aspect of capitalism is the “free market,” where in theory natural competition always leads to innovation and price controls.

An economic system based on private ownership of capital

Communism

At the opposite end of the spectrum from “capitalism,” communism is an economic theory favoring a classless society and the abolition of private property.

Communism derives from the French commun (common). Ideally, according to communism, society shares all property in common, everyone shares the burden of labor, and everyone shares the profits of that labor. Or, as the German philosopher Karl Marx wrote, “From each according to his ability, to each according to his need.” As a system of government, communism is often closer to a form of socialism, in which the state owns and operates industry on behalf of the people.

A political theory favouring collectivism in a classless society

A form of socialism that abolishes private ownership

Conservatism

Reaction to liberalism, desire to regain stability

Stability – change should be gradual

Concreteness – Liberalism too abstract not realistic for the way people live their lives everyday

Human fallibility – liberalism overestimates the strength of humans

Unique circumstances – no universal answer to society’s problems

Socialism

Response to Industrial Revolution

Collectivism: human being social by nature and should be reflected in society

Public ownership – society not individuals should own the property

Central economic planning – government plans the economy, no free market

Economic equality: all citizens have roughly the same level of prosperity

Communism and democratic socialism fall under these

CITIZENSHIP STUDIES LEVEL 10: LIFELONG LEARNING CITIZENS

Part A

Broad Area of Citizenship: History/Native Studies/Social Studies

Lifelong Learning citizens continuously strive to understand the dynamics of change and critically seek new information to make reasoned and unbiased decisions.  This area of Citizenship study develops skills, attitudes and knowledge.  Citizens develop a critical understanding of, actively explore and analyze events and the effects of decisions at multiple governance levels.

High School Students will identify and examine the effects of inequity and conflict using Canadian and world history as content and context.  They consider the impact of worldview in dealing with conflict and inequity (10); examine Canada’s reputation and role as a global citizen (20); and, consider the root causes of inequity and the challenges that multiple perspectives bring to resolving conflict (30).

Throughout the study, students engage in critical and dialectical thinking in order to ensure that multiple perspectives, consistent with Canadian Indigenous communities and Canada’s multi-cultural policy are considered.

Overview and Desired Results of Citizenship Study

Students continue to actively pursue and seek to understand multiple perspectives so that they can participate as citizens with a global perspective. With participation comes an examination of the roles and responsibilities of citizens nationally and globally.

Students examine how differing worldviews have impacted the development of society and the development and administration of justice.  They will consider the challenges that societies face when trying to co-exist despite differing worldviews by studying Canada’s treatment of Indigenous people.  Finally students explore various methods of conflict resolution and the historical and contemporary influences on such practice.

10

  • Social Studies students will recognize that a variety of worldviews can co-exist and influence individual and collective action and decision-making.
  • History Studies students will examine the historical impact of 18th, 19th, and 20th century worldviews of citizenship and human rights on intolerance and injustice.
  • Native Studies students will consider how a singular imperialistic worldview led to colonization and the resulting struggle for self-governance and sovereignty.

Enduring Understandings of Citizenship Study

Students will use this information to understand:

  • Injustices of today have roots in the past.
  • Canadian society is challenged to manage the co-existence of diverse worldviews.
  • Canadian citizens work to achieve a balance between rights and responsibilities through learning and action.
  • Canadian society has inequities and elimination of these is beneficial for all Canadians.
  • For each individual, becoming aware of racism in Canadian society is an evolutionary process and a precursor to change.
  • As citizens of local, national, and global communities, Canadians are conscious, self-reflective, and critical of their own beliefs and actions and seek to make positive change.
  • Citizens show flexibility of mind.
  • Enduring understandings and questions stimulate thinking, guide the inquiry and are linked to outcomes.
  • These questions point to the “big ideas’ in the area of inquiry and should be considered and reconsidered as the inquiry progresses.
  • Deliberation of these understandings forms the evidence of learning at the end of study.

Knowledge and Skill Development

Students will explore to understand:

  • The role and impact of International and National codes of Human Rights i.e. Indigenous Peoples, Child, and Disabled Persons;
  • The backgrounds of various human rights and social justice issues;
  • Various forms of conflict and dispute resolution forums including: Court Trial, Sentencing Circles, Town Hall Meetings, Mediation, Truth and Reconciliation Commissions, Human Rights Tribunals; and,
  • A variety of negative examples of conflict resolution and their residual impact including: assimilation, annihilation, and segregation.

Students will be able to:

  • Think critically, make and test hypotheses, and organize data for analysis;
  • Use strategies for persuasion and advocacy;
  • Use criteria to evaluate perspectives of self and others;
  • Know how to examine issues and seek information; and,
  • Engage in dialectical thinking using Canadian issues and history as content and context.

Essential Questions

  • What does it mean to be a citizen?
  • Why is there conflict between worldviews?
  • What is required in order for conflicting worldviews to coexist?
  • What range of responses have citizens used throughout history to respond to conflicting worldviews?
  • How do engaged and respectful citizens respond to conflict in a modern democracy?
  • What are the impacts of Canada’s multi-cultural policy and affirmation of diversity?
Essential Questions are open-ended questions that are continually revisited, encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study, form the evidence of understanding and frame the assessment at the end of the study.

Saskatchewan Curriculum Concept Connections

This section connects teachers and students to the concepts explored through Social Sciences Studies:  Social Studies, History, and Native Studies.  General outcomes/objectives are identified.  It is the opinion of the development committee that the outcomes incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore these outcomes/citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science area.

The order in which they are listed suggests a general idea of the learning plan to follow.

Students will:

  • Evaluate imperialistic policies, practices and attitudes of the past;
  • Identify differences in cultural, economic, social, philosophical, political, aesthetic, power perspectives;
  • Examine a variety of negative examples of conflict resolution and their residual impact, including assimilation, annihilation, and segregation;
  • Generate conflict resolution strategies that create an atmosphere of respect for diversity;
  • Examine the role diversity plays in society and the opportunities and inequities that it creates;
  • Recognize that inequities are created because of our systems; and,
  • Investigate the historic foundations that impact current Canadian issues.
Students will:

  • use strategies for persuasion and advocacy;
  • critically seek and evaluate new information; and,
  • engage in dialectical thinking using Canadian issues and history as content and context

Part B Learning Plan – 10 History, Native Studies, Social Studies

This section gives a brief overview of the students’ learning path, inquiries students may consider in class, and connections to larger concepts.  

Inquiries are identified and connections to Big Ideas are noted.  Teachers may start with any inquiry or combine inquiries to use the approach that resonates best with their students.

he citizenship inquiries incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences by exploring historical and contemporary issues through a number of viewpoints, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science areas. 

Suggested inquiries may be studied in any order according to student interests.

Inquiry

Why are some voices honoured, while others are silenced?

  • How do worldviews inform and influence issues of conflict?
  • What happens when worldviews contradict one another?
  • How are diverse viewpoints accommodated?

Where does inequity come from?

  • Is inequity the result of individual action or systemic injustice?
  • What are the contributors and remedies to inequity?

Big Ideas Explored:

  • Imperialist policies, practices and attitudes of the past have an impact on current society;
  • Differences in levels of power can impact cultural, economic social, philosophical, and aesthetic issues.
  • Conflict resolution strategies differ in their effectiveness and can have a residual impact. Such strategies include: assimilation, annihilation, and segregation.
  • Diversity is exemplified differently in society and may create opportunities and inequities;
  • Inequities are set up and maintained because of our systems; and,
  • Historic foundations impact current Canadian issues.

Historical Thinking Connections

Historical Significance: How do we decide what is important to learn about the past?

Primary Source Evidence: How do we know what we know about the past?

Continuity and Change: How can we make sense of the complex flows of history?

Cause and Consequence: Why do events happen and what are their impacts?

Historical Perspectives: How can we better understand the people of the past?

Ethical Dimension: How can history help us to live in the present?

Questions to Guide Inquiry

Essential questions are posed here to frame the context for student thinking and have students begin thinking about the topic. Answers to essential questions establish a baseline regarding student understanding as they identify the basic knowledge that students have and give teachers an idea of what students will need to learn to explore these outcomes. The essential questions and inquiries incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore these citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science area.  
Teacher Note

Essential questions and guiding questions are posed to support teachers as they facilitate students’ exploration of the inquiry. Teachers are encouraged to adjust the wording, omit or add additional questions as needed.

Essential questions are posted and discussed with students at the start of the exploration of study. These open-ended questions are continually revisited; encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study; form the evidence of understanding; and, frame the assessment at the end of the unit of study. Guiding questions are posed to support student thinking as they explore the answers to the larger overarching questions.

Teachers may want to consider putting the questions into a “Before, During, After” chart to note the changes in students’ thinking as a result of the inquiries.

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • What does it mean to be a citizen?
    • Are all citizens treated equally?
    • Are all worldviews respected?
  • Why is there conflict between worldviews?
    • Why is there conflict between some worldviews and cooperation/compatibility between others?
    • How does conflict and cooperation impact the development of society?
    • How are differences resolved? How is the group desire determined and represented?
  • How can conflicting worldviews peacefully coexist?
    • What are the social contracts that allow differing worldviews to co-exist?
    • What have been the historic worldviews that have influenced our current social realities?
  • What range of responses have citizens used throughout history to respond to conflicting worldviews? / How do engaged and respectful citizens respond to conflict in a modern democracy?
    • How do different societies and cultures administer justice?
    • How does this compare to historical applications of justice?
    • What are the methods to resolve conflict?
    • How do these responses compare to the way we, as Canadians perceive justice?
  • What responsibility does an ethical and democratic society have to pursue justice?
    • How do we evaluate the ethics and justice of a society?
    • Why does conflict exist?
    • How do engaged and respectful citizens and nations respond to conflict in a fair and just way?
  • What are the impacts of Canada’s multi-cultural policy and affirmation of diversity?
    • How has power been distributed in Canada?
    • What is the relationship between power distribution and opportunity?
    • How can inequities be addressed in current reality?

Surface and note additional student questions. 

In inquiry, students are invited to determine the context and direction of the inquiry with teacher support in connecting to the enduring understandings or big ideas.  Guided suggestions are provided to support educators new to the inquiry method.  See also Further Investigation Suggestions in part C.

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section indicates ways to introduce the concepts and helps teachers gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and allow students to think about and talk about.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific and incidental teaching required to explore these outcomes. Vocabulary is introduced and noted here.  This section frames the “We do” portion of the lesson where teachers guide the initial structure of the inquiry.
Teacher Note

  • Surface student thinking in response to the prompts or hook questions posed.
  • Add questions from students; adjust the wording of questions as needed.
  • Chart or record student thinking, perhaps in a ‘Before, During, After’ chart to note changes in student thinking.

Examining Conflict Resolution Practices

This part of the inquiry asks students to think about social justice issues and understand the historical and global practices to address differences or conflict.  Canada’s record in addressing conflict is examined.

Inquiry

Why are some voices honoured, while others are silenced?

  • How do worldviews inform and influence issues of conflict?

Hook Questions

  • Why does injustice exist in the world?
  • Where does inequity come from?
  • Whose perspective do we use in defining and applying justice?
  • What is Canada’s record in protecting justice and the rights of others?
  • What happens when justice is not achieved?
  • As citizens, how do we fix things/ right the wrongs?

Hook questions get students thinking about the issues in the inquiry and can also form the framework to guide student direction in exploration of the inquiry.

Brainstorm with students to identify some issues of conflict that are of current concern form them.  What historical issues of inequity interest them?

Identify students’ understandings of conflict strategies that have been used throughout history.  What were the social contracts that were guiding the beliefs, values and behaviours of individuals?

  • Would there ever been times when it is best for individuals to conform?
  • What is required for individuals to question and/or challenge beliefs and norms?
DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING
This section is the core of the lesson.  It describes the main activity(ies) involved.  In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the essential questions.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities. This forms the “We do” “They do” section of the inquiry where students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations.
Throughout this study, it is critical that teachers help students to step back to see the big picture. 

  • What themes are emerging?
  • What are the similarities and differences?
  • What are the connections to the enduring understandings?

The independence level of the class, will determine how much teacher direction is required to do this.

In this part of the inquiry students explore the results of a variety of conflict resolution strategies to understand the impacts of ideology, marginalization, and privilege on the process and the results.

Possible Topics of Exploration

  • Treatment of Indigenous People in Canada
    • Residential Schools,
    • Métis struggle for Recognition and Rights,
    • Indian Act
    • Reserve System
  • Evolution of Women’s Rights
  • Political Ideology
  • LGBT Rights
  • Economic Exploitation
  • Economic Inequality
  • Economic Imperialism
  • Free Trade
  • Bullying
  • Societal Power inequity
  • Colonialism
  • Imperialism
  • National and International Codes of Human Rights

Have students identify questions they wish to explore with respect to the different ways that conflict has been and can be resolved.  When students explore answers to similar questions from different perspectives and topics, then similarities and differences can be discovered and overarching themes identified.

Inquiry

Where does inequity come from?

  • Is inequity the result of individual action or systemic injustice?
    • What are the contributors and remedies to inequity?
    • How do citizens fix wrongs?
  • How are diverse viewpoints accommodated?
  • What happens when worldviews contradict one another?

Time to Revisit and Reflect

Go back and reflect on the posted student answers on their ideas of justice and note how student thinking may have changed through the inquiry.

  • What is the definition of justice and social justice?
  • Whose perspective do we use in defining and applying justice?
  • Can social justice exist?
  • What responsibility do we have to resolve conflict?
    • How do we resolve conflict? / What happens when conflict resolution practices break down?
    • How do different societies and cultures administer justice?
  • How does marginalization or privilege influence your perception of and pursuit of justice?

Go back to the injustices that you researched.

  • What would have been needed to have a different resolution to the situation?
  • What possible solutions can you devise?
  • What role has stereotyping and historic practices played on the development of current systemic inequities?
  • What is the process for changing prejudice and bias?
  • How does Canada’s multi-cultural policy support this?
  • What suggestions do you have for strengthening the policy?
  • Has Canada succeeded in eliminating inequity? What suggestions do you have?
Strategies to develop and explore inquiries include:

  • Surfacing student thinking, posting, and then reflecting on thinking to note how thinking has changed and what has caused the changes.
  • Jigsaw strategy approach: Students, individually or in groups, explore similar questions, present their findings to the group. The teacher helps students to note similarities, differences, themes.  Students are encouraged to develop summary statements to clarify their thinking and describe new learning.
  • Reflect on initial thinking to note how thinking has changed. What is the evidence to support the new learning? 

APPLY AND EXTEND KNOWLEDGE

This section introduces ideas to extend the inquiry or apply concepts explored, forming the “You do” portion of the inquiry.  Pose additional reflective questions that have been raised to encourage critical and creative thinking.

Choose and research one of the following areas

  • UN Codes
  • Charter of Rights and Freedoms
  • religion
  • morality
  • law,
  • politics
  • culture

For your particular area identify the:

  • connection or relationship to issues of justice
  • influence on individual and societal views of justice
  • impact of differences in perspective and worldview on our perception of justice
  • influence on your pursuit of justice
  • What inequities are set up because of our systems?
  • What are the historic foundations that have supported these inequities?
  • What is required to make changes to the current injustices created by the structures of Canadian society?

Have the students choose one of the various justice forums and propose a resolution:

  • Court Trial
  • Sentencing Circles
  • Town Hall Meeting
  • Mediation
  • Truth and Reconciliation Commissions
  • Human Rights Tribunals

EVIDENCE OF LEARNING

This section suggests ways in which students may demonstrate their understanding.  Ideal demonstrations will be in authentic performance tasks.  Each citizenship study may have its own smaller assessment piece or be compiled to support one larger performance task assessment.  Assessment pieces vary, but should allow students to demonstrate their understanding in a variety of ways.
Have students demonstrate what they have learned about the questions.

How has their thinking changed from their initial thinking? 

What evidence do they have to support their thinking?

Have students use the following prompts to make connections to or address any of the essential questions, the enduring understandings, or the inquiry questions to demonstrate their evidence of learning.

  • What do you think now about…?
  • What has caused your thinking to change?
  • What evidence supports your thinking?
  • Why is this information important to know?
  • How will you use this information?

Inquiry

Why are some voices honoured, while others are silenced? 

  • How do worldviews inform and influence issues of conflict?

What happens when worldviews contradict one another? 

  • How are diverse viewpoints accommodated?

Where does inequity come from? 

  • Is inequity the result of individual action or systemic injustice?
  • What are the contributors and remedies to inequity?

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • What does it mean to be a citizen?
    • Are all citizens treated equally?
    • Are all worldviews respected?
  • Why is there conflict between worldviews?
    • Why is there conflict between some worldviews and cooperation/compatibility between others?
    • How does conflict and cooperation impact the development of society?
    • How are differences resolved?
    • How is the group desire determined and represented?
  • How can conflicting worldviews peacefully coexist?
    • What are the social contracts that allow differing worldviews to co-exist?
    • What have been the historic worldviews that have influenced our current social realities?
  • What range of responses have citizens used throughout history to respond to conflicting worldviews? / How do engaged and respectful citizens respond to conflict in a modern democracy?
    • How do different societies and cultures administer justice?
    • How does this compare to historical applications of justice?
    • What are the methods to resolve conflict?
    • How do these responses compare to the way we, as Canadians perceive justice?
  • What responsibility does an ethical and democratic society have to pursue justice?
    • How do we evaluate the ethics and justice of a society?
    • Why does conflict exist?
    • How do engaged and respectful citizens and nations respond to conflict in a fair and just way?
  • What are the impacts of Canada’s multi-cultural policy and affirmation of diversity?
    • How has power been distributed in Canada?
    • What is the relationship between power distribution and opportunity?
    • How can inequities be addressed in current reality?
Enduring Understandings

  • Injustices of today have roots in the past.
  • Canadian society is challenged to manage the co-existence of diverse worldviews.
  • Canadian citizens work to achieve a balance between rights and responsibilities through learning and action.
  • Canadian society has inequities and elimination of these is beneficial for all Canadians.
  • For each individual, becoming aware of racism in Canadian society is an evolutionary process and a precursor to change.
  • As citizens of local, national, and global communities, Canadians are conscious, self-reflective, and critical of their own beliefs and actions and seek to make positive change.
  • Citizens show flexibility of mind.

STUDENT CITIZENSHIP JOURNAL OPPORTUNITIES

Students will continue to explore their understanding of their role as a Canadian citizen and reflect on their perspective in an Ongoing Journal.  Consider opportunities for video journaling or blogging.  Art may be included throughout the journal; some to accompany the journal entry and some that are random drawings and sketching. The journal entries are a record of the student’s thinking and chronicle their changing views of citizenship.

Students are keeping a Citizenship Journal to reflect upon their developing views of citizenship.  This section provides prompts for student journals.  Students are invited to choose one that interests them or propose their own. Students can also respond to any of the essential questions.

Students are encouraged to respond using a variety of genres.

  • What examples do you have when opportunities for some created inequity for others? Why do you suppose that happened? What do you think now about the situation?
  • When did you feel pressure to choose a different response to an issue even though you felt it was wrong? How did you resolve your internal conflict?

Part C

Inquiry Resources

ROVER (Recommended Online Video Education Resources) is a video streaming service for Saskatchewan teachers and students in the PreK-12 education system. It is managed and maintained by the Saskatchewan Ministry of Education.

The ROVER service is video-on-demand which provides teachers and students with the convenience of immediate access to streamed, educational videos that support curriculum. ROVER videos are housed on a server located in a school or school division network so there are no bandwidth issues, resulting in better picture quality and continuous play of videos without pauses. The videos are intended for viewing on the streaming site and not for copying or downloading.

There are over 1000 videos on ROVER that can be accessed by teachers and students to enhance learning in the classroom. All the videos found on this site have been evaluated by educational professionals and recommended to support Saskatchewan’s K-12 curricula. The ROVER collection of videos continues to evolve as new videos are added annually and old videos expire.

Case Studies Resources

  • Choose Your Voice (FAST – Fighting Antisemitism Together)
  • Facing History and Ourselves
  • Historical Thinking Project
  • The Critical Thinking Consortium – https://tc2.ca
  • Vancouver Holocaust Education Centre
  • Burma and the Great Awakening – CBC News in Review (R.O.V.E.R.)
  • Mandela (R.O.V.E.R.)
  • Nelson Mandela (R.O.V.E.R.)
  • North to Freedom: The Underground Railroad to Canada (R.O.V.E.R.)
  • The Dark Side of Chocolate (R.O.V.E.R.)
  • White Man’s Country (R.O.V.E.R.)
  • Women’s Rights: Raising the Glass Ceiling (R.O.V.E.R.)
  • EconomicJustice.ca

Possible Resources for Conflict Resolution Procedures:

Cross Curricular Connections

The Saskatchewan Ministry of Education English Language Arts Curriculum states:

“If students are to become lifelong learners, develop a sense of self and connection to others, and become engaged citizens and achieve the Cross-curricular Competencies and the outcomes for English language arts, students require meaningful, authentic contexts for learning. Students need many opportunities to explore questions and concerns about themselves and about the world.”

The Concentus Citizenship Education Resources provide teachers with a framework of inquires with which to further students’ explorations of their roles and responsibilities as Canadian citizens, in authentic contexts.  These inquiries are directly connected to Social Sciences (History, Native Studies, Social Studies) foundational outcomes and the broad goals of learning identified above.  Specific connections to English Language Arts and Treaty Education are identified and suggested as starting points for teachers.

English Language Arts B10 (Unit 1):

Contexts/Themes

Equity and Ethics (Who and What is Right?; Empowerment; Degrees of Responsibility; Rights and Responsibilities; Justice and Fairness)

Essential Questions

  • What are some of the factors that create inequalities? How have inequalities shaped our world?
  • What is my role and responsibility in addressing inequalities?
  • What is the relationship between rights and responsibilities?
  • Who decides what is right? Why should we do the right thing? How can I act on the right thing?
  • How does one become an ethical person?

English Language Arts B10: (Unit 2):

Contexts/Themes

The World Around and Within Us (Perspectives; Diversity of Being; The Natural and the Constructed Worlds; Individuals and Communities; Stewardship)

Essential Questions

  • What are our relationships and responsibilities to the communities and environments of which we are a part? How are we related to and responsible for natural and constructed environments? For technology?
  • Why is it important to be in touch with the world?
  • The world is a difficult text: how can we read it and respond to it critically?
  • How can I have a positive influence upon my world?
  • How must we show respect and care for the community of life?

Treaty Education

  • TR10: Examine contemporary economic implications of Treaties for all the people of Saskatchewan and other Canadian jurisdictions.
  • SI10: Analyze the spirit and intent of Treaties and investigate the extent to which they have been fulfilled.
  • HC10: Investigate opportunities and challenges faced by First Nations and the Government of Canada in relation to governance issues.
  • TPP10: Investigate issues related to resource development and Treaties.

Further Investigation Suggestions

  • Develop a national transit strategy, identifying issues and proposing alternative solutions. Brings out ideology issues and students have to adhere strategy to ideology.
  • Investigate the effects of climate change on hunger and food scarcity.

Exploring Inequity

Using the jigsaw research method have students explore the following policies/events:

  • Residential Schools
  • Métis struggle for Recognition and Rights
  • Indian Act
  • Reserve System
  • Other?

For each event:

  • Identify the issue.
  • Trace history leading up to the policy/event.
  • Identify the belief or worldview of the society and culture that led to the administration or application of policy. (What was the administering party trying to achieve?)
  • Identify the differences in perspective and worldview of the parties/people/culture affected by the administration of this form of justice.
  • What was the impact on the receiving party?

  • How did these processes compare to current perceptions of justice? (SS?)/How does this compare to historical applications of justice? (His?)
  • What has changed about society to account for the shift in our response to this issue?

Glossary

Use the following space to record a list of newly introduced, uncommon, or specialized terms or words generated during the inquiry study.

CITIZENSHIP STUDIES LEVEL 10: CITIZENS CONNECTED TO SELF, COMMUNITY, PLACE

Part A

Broad Area of Citizenship: Social Studies/History/Native Studies

“Diversity is a fundamental aspect of human interaction. Living together as members of society requires understanding and appreciation of human diversity and diverse perspectives.” (Social Studies 9 (2009) Ministry of Education)

Citizens connected to Self, Community, and Place value and demonstrate a commitment to understanding the connections between people, the societies they create, and the environment in which they live.   They strive to right inequities of social injustice.

Students begin by examining causes of injustice and the considerations that must occur when trying to redress wrongs (10).   They move to understanding the implications of injustice at the international level (20) and consider the additional complications of working with many countries with differing ideologies and political structures.  In the final year of study (30) students continue to examine the historical and contemporary issues that arise from injustice and the structures, societal and political, that perpetuate ongoing inequities, including accepting the status quo.

Overview and Desired Results of Citizenship Study

Students continue to explore the attributes of engaged citizenship and the importance and purpose of community stewardship.  They examine social justice issues and seek to advance the work towards a resolution for these issues, on a regional and national level.

Students reflect on how society and its institutions support or impede citizenship and the ability of citizens to redress injustices.  They will also understand the implications of history on the present social contract but strive to commit themselves to bringing about positive change to contemporary Citizenship issues as an aspect of participation in the democratic process.

10

  • Social Studies students will consider how our social structures and institutions have supported or impeded citizen empowerment to act on issues of social injustice.
  • Historical Studies students will consider how our historical perspectives and ideologies contributed to the current state of social contract.
  • Native Studies students will examine how existing political processes and structures attempt to address contemporary issues.

Enduring Understandings of Citizenship Study

Students will use this information to understand:

  • Injustices of today have roots in the past.
  • Canadian society is challenged to manage the co-existence of diverse worldviews.
  • Canadian citizens work to achieve a balance between rights and responsibilities through learning and action.
  • Canadian society has inequities and elimination of these is beneficial for all Canadians.
  • For each individual, becoming aware of racism in Canadian society is an evolutionary process and a precursor to change.
  • As citizens of local, national, and global communities, Canadians are conscious, self-reflective, and critical of their own beliefs and actions and seek to make positive change.
  • Citizens show flexibility of mind.
  • Enduring understandings and questions stimulate thinking, guide the inquiry and are linked to outcomes.
  • These questions point to the “big ideas’ in the area of inquiry and should be considered and reconsidered as the inquiry progresses.
  • Deliberation of these understandings forms the evidence of learning at the end of study.

Knowledge and Skill Development

Students will be able to:

  • Identify and analyze social justice issues
  • Compare and contrast strategies to address those issues
  • Investigate the underlying causes of social injustice

Essential Questions

  • What is social justice?
  • Why do injustices exist?
  • What responsibility do individuals have to address injustices in society? How could this be accomplished?
  • What responsibilities do governments have to address injustices in society? How can this be accomplished?
  • How does an ethical and democratic society define and pursue justice?
Essential Questions are open-ended questions that are continually revisited, encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study, form the evidence of understanding and frame the assessment at the end of the study.

Saskatchewan Curriculum Concept Connections

This section connects teachers and students to the concepts explored through Social Sciences Studies:  Social Studies, History, and Native Studies.  General outcomes/objectives are identified.  It is the opinion of the development committee that the outcomes incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore these citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science area.

Students will:

  • Investigate a variety of injustices, contemporary and historical, in social, economic, religious, and/or cultural areas;
  • Understand that in order to have security, stability and predictability, humans tacitly agree to conform to the beliefs, values and mores imposed on them, implicitly and explicitly, by the various organizations of society or nations;
  • Explore the processes that groups or organizations use to resolve differences and develop strategies to provide resolution so that a collective course of action can be carried out;
  • Examine the importance and purpose of community stewardship and take action at provincial, national, and global levels;
  • Compare and contrast the prevailing Canadian worldview with worldviews from around the globe in order to foster cooperation and respect among cultures; and,
  • Determine and implement an action plan to affect change on a specific social justice issue.
This level of study examines Canadian issues and therefore must include First Nations, Métis, and Inuit perspectives, at both the historical and contemporary level.

Part B Learning Plan – 10 Social Studies, History, Native Studies

This section provides a brief overview of the students’ learning path; inquiries students will be researching; and, the various connections to larger concepts.

Inquiries are identified and connections to Big Ideas are noted.  Teachers may begin with any inquiry or combine inquiries to use the approach that resonates best with their students.

The citizenship inquiries incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences by exploring historical and contemporary issues through a number of viewpoints, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science areas. 

Suggested inquiries may be studied in any order according to student interests.

This citizenship area requires students to form an action plan to address a social justice issue of their choosing.  Teachers are encouraged to consider how to incorporate this study of citizenship early in the semester so that students have time to develop and implement their action plan.

Inquiry

What responsibility do we have to each other?

  • How do make things better?
    • What are the considerations when trying to redress injustice?

Big Ideas:

  • Injustices, historical and contemporary, continue to exist with effects that are evident in social, economic, religious, and cultural areas.
  • Humans tacitly agree to conform to the beliefs, values and mores imposed on them, implicitly and explicitly, by the various organizations of society or nations, in order to have security, stability, and predictability;
  • Groups and organizations have processes and strategies to resolve differences and reach resolution so that a collective course of action can be carried out;
  • Social media plays a significant role in societal and national actions; and,
  • Plans to affect change for a specific social justice issue requires consideration of multiple issues.

Questions to Guide Inquiry

Essential questions are posed here to frame the context for student thinking and have students begin thinking about the topic. Answers to essential questions establish a baseline regarding student understanding as they identify the basic knowledge that students have and give teachers an idea of what students will need to learn to explore these outcomes. The essential questions and inquiries incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore these citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science area.  
Teacher Note

Essential questions and guiding questions are posed to support teachers as they facilitate students’ explorations of the inquiry.  Teachers are encouraged to adjust the wording, omit or add questions as they choose.

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • What is social justice?
    • What is injustice?
    • How do we know it is injustice?
  • Why do injustices exist?
    • Why do injustices exist in free and democratic societies?
    • What can be done about injustice?
  • What responsibility do individuals have to address injustices in society?
    • How do we decide which injustice to address?
    • How can engaged citizens affect positive change?
  • What responsibilities do governments have to address injustices in society? How can this be accomplished?
    • What are the agreements that citizens agree to adopt and support so that they can live together?
    • Who is responsible for determining the parameters of these agreements?
    • What happens when alternate perspectives are not considered?
    • What are the processes that are used to resolve differences?
    • How has time impacted current thinking on conflict resolution?

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section introduces the concepts and helps teachers gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and allow students to think about and talk about.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific and incidental teaching required to explore these outcomes. Vocabulary is introduced and noted here.  This section frames the “We do” portion of the lesson where teachers guide the initial structure of the inquiry.
Teacher Note

  • Surface student thinking in response to the prompts or hook questions posed.
  • Add questions from students; adjust the wording of questions as needed.
  • Record student thinking for later reflection. Teachers may use a ‘Before, During, After’ strategy to note changes in student thinking.

Considering an Action Plan

This inquiry asks students to choose an issue of conflict and propose an action plan or make recommendations to address the ongoing issues.  To do this, students will need to understand the social agreements that exist in power relationships and interactions, and identify alternate strategies of behaviour to achieve plausible solutions.  Because this plan will take time to understand and develop, students should be encouraged to choose an area to address early in their studies so they can continue to work on their action plan through the semester.

Inquiry

What responsibilities do we have to each other? How do we make things better?

  • Why do some events trigger change and some not?
  • What are the considerations when trying to redress injustice?

Hook Questions – Think about… Talk about…

  • How do we create positive and meaningful change?
  • What are the agreements that citizens agree to adopt and support so that they can live together?
    • Are all stakeholder perspectives represented?
  • Who is responsible for determining the structure of these agreements?
    • How are decisions made?
  • What happens when alternate perspectives are not considered?

Students explore a variety of social contracts that exist to understand that in order to have security, stability and predictability in our interactions, humans tacitly agree to conform to beliefs, values and mores imposed on them by various organizations of society.  Teachers will be asked to help students identify the agreements that exist between organizations and nations that allow them to work together.

In the action plan, students develop a strategy for resolution of their chosen social justice issue.

Strategies to develop and explore inquiries include:

  • Surfacing student thinking, posting, and then reflecting on thinking to note how thinking has changed and what has caused the changes.
  • Jigsaw strategy approach: Students, individually or in groups, explore similar questions, present their findings to the group. The teacher helps students to note similarities, differences, themes.  Students are encouraged to develop summary statements to clarify their thinking and describe new learning.
  • Reflecting on initial thinking to note how thinking has changed. Identify evidence to support the new learning. 
  • What are the processes that are used to resolve differences?
  • How has time impacted current thinking on conflict resolution?

Note and record student thinking; surface additional questions.

What agreements govern how citizens work together?

  • What are the agreements that citizens agree to adopt and support so that they can live together?
  • Who is responsible for determining the structures of these agreements?
  • What happens when alternate perspectives are not considered?
  • What are the processes that are used to resolve differences?
  • How has time impacted current thinking on conflict resolution?

What social justice issues are students interested in?

  • Possible areas of injustices:
    • First Nations issues
    • Gender based issues
    • Environmental issues
    • Socio-economic issues
    • Cultural issues

Identify

  • What were/are the issues?
    • Identify the various stakeholders’ perspectives.
    • Why are/were they significant?
  • What actions were taken to make a difference/effect a change and what was the impact of those actions?
  • What challenges were/are faced in trying to right this wrong?
  • How has time impacted current thinking on the resolution of this issue?
  • How has social media impacted the issue?

Vocabulary

  • Justice
  • Injustice
  • Privilege
  • Marginalization
  • Equity
  • Fairness
Throughout this study, it is critical that teachers help students to step back to see the big picture. 

  • What themes are emerging?
  • What are the similarities and differences?
  • What are the connections to the enduring understandings?

The independence level of the class, will determine how much teacher direction is required to do this.

As a class Think about… Talk about…

  • What are the similarities and differences between the issues?
  • What themes are students noticing?

Teachers are encouraged to use the Historical Thinking Concepts constructs in exploring any of the inquiries.

Historical Significance: How do we decide what is important to learn about the past?

Primary Source Evidence: How do we know what we know about the past?

Cause and Consequence: Why do events happen and what are their impacts?

Historical Perspectives: How can we better understand the people of the past?

Continuity and Change: How can we make sense of the complex flows of history?

Ethical Dimension: How can history help us to live in the present?

DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING
This section is the core of the lesson.  It describes the main activity(ies) involved.  In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the essential questions.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities.  This forms the  “They do” section of the inquiry where students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations. Teachers work with students to clarify understandings.

Action for Change Symposium/Inquiry

Clarify with students, reasons for choosing the issue they will be focusing on.

  • Criteria to narrow their focus may include:
    • relevance,
    • importance,
    • proximity,
    • interest,
    • possible impact [racial, social, economic, political],
    • urgency,
    • timeline,
    • likelihood of success,
    • available resources (Might need to examine the availability of resources before moving forward)?

Action Plan to Affect Change

For your particular Social Justice issue, research and identify:

  • Stakeholder and the issues from stakeholders’ perspectives
  • What has already been done?
  • What can be done?
  • What are the short term and long term targets for change?
  • What skills/resources do we need to affect this change?
  • What allies can I access?
  • What barriers will I face?
  • How will this help my own growth? (intellectual, moral, spiritual and/or social)

In reporting and reflecting upon their process in addressing a specific social justice issue have students:

A.

  • Explain, examine, and evaluate their strategy for change.
  • Identify the impact of their actions.

B.

  • What criteria did you use in choosing your specific social justice issue?
  • What were the root causes of the issue?
  • Where did you find your information?
  • What criteria did you use in selecting the action you took?

C.

  • What success did you have?
  • What challenges did you experience?
  • What are the barriers to implementing change?

D.

  • Who has a vested interest in maintaining the status quo, and why?
  • What are the implications of change for all stakeholders (those with power, those seeking change, those indirectly affected, etc)?

E.

  • What would you do differently next time?
  • How did your thinking about the issue evolve during the process?
  • What are the next steps you will take?

APPLY AND EXTEND KNOWLEDGE

This section includes ideas to “wrap up” the inquiry or apply concepts explored. This section may also include additional reflective questions to promote student connection to the topic.  This forms the “You do” section – extend thinking beyond the classroom discussions and inquiry experiences.  Pose additional reflective questions that have been raised to encourage critical and creative thinking.  
Implement the Action Plan (This will require time.  Should be started at beginning of year.)

  • Have the students assess the impact of their actions. Did they achieve the desired results? What more needs to be done?
  • Conduct the Action for Change Symposium as a class.
  • Explore the relationship between economic, social, and environmental efficiencies and the responsibility of Canadian citizenship.

Possible Inquiry Questions for Extension

  • Do citizens have an obligation to get involved in all social justice issues?
  • What is needed to encourage people to get involved in social justice issues?
  • How do citizens determine which social justice issues to undertake?
  • What influence does social media have in resolution of current social justice issues?

EVIDENCE OF LEARNING

This section suggests ways in which students may demonstrate their understanding.  Ideal demonstrations will be in authentic performance tasks.  Each citizenship study may have its own smaller assessment piece or be compiled to support one larger performance task assessment.  Assessment pieces vary, but should allow students to demonstrate their understanding in a variety of ways.
Have students demonstrate what they have learned about the questions.

How has their thinking changed from their initial thinking? 

What evidence do they have to support their thinking?

Have students use the following prompts to make connections to or address any of the essential questions, the enduring understandings, or the inquiry questions to demonstrate their evidence of learning.

  • What do you think now about…?
  • What has caused your thinking to change?
  • What evidence supports your thinking?
  • Why is this information important to know?
  • How will you use this information?

Inquiry

What responsibility do we have to each other?

How do make things better?

  • Why do some events trigger change and some not?
  • What are the considerations when trying to redress injustice?
  • How does the process change when higher levels of government become involved? e. regional vs. provincial vs. national

Social Justice Issue Reflection

For each prompt give your reasons and explain your thinking.

  • How would you rate your resolution of your social justice issue?
  • What were you most pleased about?
  • What continues to cause you concern?
  • What needs to change in order for you to achieve a stronger resolution?

Additional Inquiry Questions for Assessment:

  • Can all social justice issues be resolved satisfactorily?
  • Do citizens have an obligation to get involved in all social justice issues?
  • What would be your criteria for satisfactory resolution of social justice issues?
  • What is required from the Canadian citizens in order for successful resolution of social justice issues to occur?
  • What are some of the barriers that keep citizens/people from becoming involved in social justice issues?
Enduring Understandings

  • Injustices of today have roots in the past.
  • Canadian society is challenged to manage the co-existence of diverse worldviews.
  • Canadian citizens work to achieve a balance between rights and responsibilities through learning and action.
  • Canadian society has inequities and elimination of these is beneficial for all Canadians.
  • For each individual, becoming aware of racism in Canadian society is an evolutionary process and a precursor to change.
  • As citizens of local, national, and global communities, Canadians are conscious, self-reflective, and critical of their own beliefs and actions and seek to make positive change.
  • Citizens show flexibility of mind.
Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • What is social justice?
    • What is injustice?
    • How do we know it is injustice?
  • Why do injustices exist?
    • Why do injustices exist in free and democratic societies?
    • What can be done about injustice?
  • What responsibility do individuals have to address injustices in society?
    • How do we decide which injustice to address?
    • How can engaged citizens affect positive change?
  • What responsibilities do governments have to address injustices in society? How can this be accomplished?
    • What are the agreements that citizens agree to adopt and support so that they can live together?
    • Who is responsible for determining the parameters of these agreements?
    • What happens when alternate perspectives are not considered?
    • What are the processes that are used to resolve differences?
    • How has time impacted current thinking on conflict resolution?

STUDENT CITIZENSHIP JOURNAL OPPORTUNITIES

Students will continue to explore their understanding of their role as a Canadian citizen and reflect on their perspective in an Ongoing Journal. Consider video journaling and blogging options.   Art may be included throughout the journal; some to accompany the journal entry and some that are random drawings and sketching. The journal entries are a record of the student’s thinking and chronicle the student’s changing views of citizenship.

Students are keeping a Citizenship Journal to reflect upon their developing views of citizenship.  This section provides prompts for student journals.  Students are invited to choose one that interests them or propose their own. Students can also respond to any of the essential questions.

Students are encouraged to respond using a variety of genres.

  • How much did you think about human rights before this inquiry?
  • What role does privilege play in human rights?
  • What is required for true equality?
  • What surprised you about your learning?

Part C

Inquiry Resources

  • Democracy Watch – democracywatch.ca
  • Take Action: A Guide to Active Citizenship (Kielburger)
  • Service-Learning: From Classroom to Community to Career (Watkins and Braun)
  • Active Citizenship: Student Action Projects (Case, Falk, Smith and Werner)
  • The Complete Guide to Service Learning: Prove, Practical Ways to Engage Students in Civic Responsibility, Academic Curriculum, and Social Action (Kane)
  • The Kid’s Guide to Social Action: How to Solve the Social Problems You Choose – And Turn Creative Thinking Into Positive Action (Lewis)
  • Weday.com
  • Upworthy.com
  • The Rise of the Occupy Movement (R.O.V.E.R.)
  • BC Teacher’s Federation
  • Canadian Teacher’s Federation
  • Teaching for Peace
  • Canadian Civil Liberties Association
  • Fighting Anti-Semitism Together (FAST): http://www.fightingantisemitism.ca/
  • Voices into Action: http://www.voicesintoaction.ca

Cross Curricular Connections

The Saskatchewan Ministry of Education English Language Arts Curriculum states:

“If students are to become lifelong learners, develop a sense of self and connection to others, and become engaged citizens and achieve the Cross-curricular Competencies and the outcomes for English language arts, students require meaningful, authentic contexts for learning. Students need many opportunities to explore questions and concerns about themselves and about the world.”

The Concentus Citizenship Education Resources provide teachers with a framework of inquires with which to further students’ explorations of their roles and responsibilities as Canadian citizens, in authentic contexts.  These inquiries are directly connected to Social Sciences (History, Native Studies, Social Studies) foundational outcomes and the broad goals of learning identified above.  Specific connections to English Language Arts and Treaty Education are identified and suggested as starting points for teachers.

English Language Arts B10 (Unit 1):

Contexts/Themes

Equity and Ethics (Who and What is Right?; Empowerment; Degrees of Responsibility; Rights and Responsibilities; Justice and Fairness)

Essential Questions

  • What are some of the factors that create inequalities? How have inequalities shaped our world?
  • What is my role and responsibility in addressing inequalities?
  • What is the relationship between rights and responsibilities?
  • Who decides what is right? Why should we do the right thing? How can I act on the right thing?
  • How does one become an ethical person?

English Language Arts B10: (Unit 2):

Contexts/Themes

The World Around and Within Us (Perspectives; Diversity of Being; The Natural and the Constructed Worlds; Individuals and Communities; Stewardship)

Essential Questions

  • What are our relationships and responsibilities to the communities and environments of which we are a part? How are we related to and responsible for natural and constructed environments? For technology?
  • Why is it important to be in touch with the world?
  • The world is a difficult text: how can we read it and respond to it critically?
  • How can I have a positive influence upon my world?
  • How must we show respect and care for the community of life?

Treaty Education

  • TR10: Examine contemporary economic implications of Treaties for all the people of Saskatchewan and other Canadian jurisdictions.
  • SI10: Analyze the spirit and intent of Treaties and investigate the extent to which they have been fulfilled.
  • HC10: Investigate opportunities and challenges faced by First Nations and the Government of Canada in relation to governance issues.
  • TPP10: Investigate issues related to resource development and Treaties.

Further Investigation Suggestions

  • Have students assume the historical persona of someone in the position to be able to combat a historical injustice. Present their issue and tell how they would combat the issue.  Identify why the outcome would be different.

Glossary

Use the following space to record a list of newly introduced, uncommon, or specialized terms or words generated during the inquiry study.
OUR PARTNERS

2018 © Concentus Citizenship Education Foundation Inc. All Rights Reserved.

10 Level Resources 10 Level