20 LEVEL RESOURCES

The Intentional & Direct Teaching of Essential Citizenship Competencies

CITIZENSHIP STUDIES LEVEL 20: ENGAGED CITIZENS

Part A

Broad Area of Citizenship: Social Studies/History/Native Studies

Engaged Citizens question, critically examine, advocate, and defend rights and responsibilities of democracy on a local, national, and global level.  They strive to understand the impact of ideology on issues and actions connected with diversity, rights and responsibilities, and various levels of governance.

High school students analyze and explore the concept of ideology:

  • by investigating a range of ideologies and their application and impact on citizenship at the national level (10);
  • by evaluating the impacts of ideology, historically and contemporary, at international levels (20); and,
  • by examining, analyzing, and de-constructing the concept of ideology as a tool for understanding how it impacts Canadian (30):
    • beliefs and actions, nationally and globally; and,
    • participation as a citizens from a national and global perspective.

Overview and Desired Results of Citizenship Study

Students recognize the role that ideology plays in our perspectives and the application of Human Rights.  Students extend their investigations to consider historically how worldview has impacted and continues to impact perspectives of citizenship and the balance between meeting the needs of citizens and promoting the nation’s best interests.  Through the investigation of worldview and the impact of worldview on an individuals’ and society’s beliefs, students specifically consider the influence of imperialism and colonialism on populations especially Indigenous peoples.

20

  • Social Studies students will consider how ideology influences our perspectives toward the application of Human Rights.
  • History students will consider how historical events of the 20th century influence our perspectives of and about citizenship.
  • Native Studies students will consider how imperialism and colonization have affected historical and contemporary Indigenous populations.

Enduring Understandings of Citizenship Study

Students will use this information to understand that:

  • Injustices of today have roots in the past.
  • Canadian society is challenged to manage the co-existence of diverse worldviews.
  • Canadian citizens work to achieve a balance between rights and responsibilities through learning and action.
  • Canadian society has inequities and elimination of these is beneficial for all Canadians.
  • For each individual, becoming aware of racism in Canadian society is an evolutionary process and a precursor to change.
  • As citizens of local, national, and global communities, Canadians are conscious, self-reflective, and critical of their own beliefs and actions and seek to make positive change.
  • Citizens show flexibility of mind.
  • Enduring understandings and questions stimulate thinking, guide the inquiry and are linked to outcomes.
  • These questions point to the “big ideas’ in the area of inquiry and should be considered and reconsidered as the inquiry progresses.
  • Answers to these understandings form the evidence of learning at the end of study.

Knowledge and Skill Development

Students will know:

  • The definition of ideology and its role in society.
  • Characteristics and assumptions of ideologies along the ideological spectrum.
  • Historical and contemporary ideological issues.
  • The role of worldview in ideologies.
  • The rights and responsibilities of Canadian and Global citizens.

Students will practice the skills of dialectical thinking and:

  • Make inferences about ideologies based on responses to a variety of issues.
  • Identify ideological assumptions.
  • Examine multiple perspectives.

Essential Questions

  • In what ways is ideology useful in guiding human beliefs and behaviour?
  • What are the limitations of ideology in guiding beliefs and behaviour?
  • How does ideology influence our view of social justice?
  • How does a society structure itself to find a balance between the responsibilities of citizens to society and society’s responsibilities to its citizens, and what factors influence the finding of this balance?
  • Has Canadian society been organized to reflect our national values and beliefs?
Essential Questions are open-ended questions that are continually revisited, encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study, form the evidence of understanding and frame the assessment at the end of the study.

Saskatchewan Curriculum Concepts

This section connects teachers and students to the concepts explored through Social Sciences Studies:  Social Studies, History, and Native Studies.  General outcomes/objectives are identified.  It is the opinion of the development committee that the outcomes incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore these outcomes/citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science areas.

The order in which they are listed suggests a general idea of the learning plan to follow.

Students will:

  • Continue to examine how ideology and worldview affect action.
  • Understand that human rights are those rights which people in society collectively have decided they will honour because people are morally entitled to them and that societies vary in their understanding and application of human rights and responsibilities.
  • Consider which obligations and responsibilities individuals, and groups, should collectively assume for each other’s human rights.
  • Examine how imperialism and colonization have affected the application of human rights.
  • Explore the interconnections between social, economic, political and cultural systems in order to understand how change in one affects the others.
  • Examine how the relationship between collective and individual rights varies according to the political system of the society.
  • Examine how groups seek to have control over the decision-making processes which have an impact on their cultural distinctiveness and well-being.
  • Consider how a society structures itself to find a balance between domestic considerations and international and/or colonial considerations; and,
  • Understand that individual welfare is the feeling that one’s personal potential is being developed so that a fulfilling and satisfying life is possible.
Throughout these inquiries students are encouraged to practice the principles of dialectical thinking and work to consider multiple perspectives in their decision-making processes.

Part B Learning Plan – Social Studies 20, History 20, Native Studies 20

This section gives a brief overview of the students’ learning path, inquiries students will be doing in class, and various connections to larger concepts.
Teacher Note

Throughout these inquiries students are encouraged to practice the principles of dialectical thinking and work to consider multiple perspectives in their decision-making processes.

The citizenship inquiries incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences by exploring historical and contemporary issues through a number of viewpoints, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science areas. 
Teachers many begin with any inquiry or combine inquiries to use the approach that resonates best with their students.

Inquiry

What responsibilities do we have to one another?

  • Are Human Rights Universal?

Big Ideas Explored:

  • individuals in society make decisions as to what degree they will honour human rights;
  • Societies vary in their understanding and application of human rights and responsibilities;
  • Citizens decide which obligations and responsibilities individuals, and groups will collectively assume for each other’s human rights; and,
  • Imperialism and colonization have affected the application of human rights.

Inquiry

How did events of the 20th and early 21st century influence our perspectives of and about citizenship and human rights?

  • What role did conflict play in this development?

Big Ideas Explored:     

  • There are interconnections between social, economic, political and cultural systems that are important to examine to understand how change in one affects the others;
  • The relationship between collective and individual rights varies according to the political system of the society;
  • Groups seek to have control over decision-making processes which have an impact on their cultural distinctiveness and well-being; and,
    • Society structures itself to find a balance between domestic priorities and international considerations.
    • From whose perspective are these decisions made?
    • What are the responsibilities of citizens to society?
    • What are the responsibilities of society to its citizens?
Opportunity for Interdisciplinary study.  Connection to ELA 20.

Questions to Guide Inquiry

Essential questions are posed here to frame the context for student thinking and have students begin thinking about the topic. Answers to essential questions establish a baseline regarding student understanding as they identify the basic knowledge that students have and give teachers an idea of what students will need to learn to explore these outcomes. The essential questions and inquiries incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore these citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science area.  
Teacher Note

Essential questions and guiding questions are posed to support teachers as they facilitate students’ exploration of the inquiry.  Teachers are encouraged to adjust the wording, omit, or add questions as they choose.

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions  

  • In what ways is ideology useful in explaining human beliefs and behavior?
    • What are the limitations of ideology in guiding beliefs and behavior?
    • How can governments be held accountable for their human rights violations?
  • What are the limitations of ideology in explaining beliefs and behaviours?
    • Perspective?
    • What role do the following play in achieving human rights?
      • Economy
      • History
      • Compassion
    • How does ideology and worldview influence our view of social justice?
      • What are the historical and international influences on social justice?
    • How does society achieve a balance between the responsibilities of citizens to society and society’s responsibilities to its citizens?
      • In considering its best interests, what should a nation consider:
        • The needs of its citizens and the state as being of paramount concern; or,
        • The needs of the nation as being part of a larger whole which must be considered.
      • Has Canadian society been organized to reflect national values and beliefs?

Surface additional questions that students have.

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section indicates ways to introduce the lesson by engaging students.

Suggestions are posed here to frame the context for student thinking and cause students to begin thinking about the topic.

Vocabulary is introduced and noted here. This section frames the “We do” portion of the lesson where teachers guide the initial structure of the inquiry.

Teacher Note

  • Surface student thinking in response to the prompts or hook questions posed.
  • Add questions from students; adjust wording of questions as needed.
  • Chart student thinking for later reflection.

Exploring our responsibilities to one another

This inquiry examines the range of responses that exist internationally to protecting and ensuring human rights.  Students examine the links between ideology, economic prosperity, and human rights.

Structured suggestions are provided here but teachers familiar with inquiry are encouraged to use the questions to allow the inquiries to develop according to student interests.

Inquiry

What responsibilities do we have to one another?

  • Are Human Rights universal?
  • How have our perspectives on this issue changed?
    • How did events of the 20th and early 21st century influence our perspectives of and about human rights and citizenship?

Hook Questions Think about… Talk about…

  • What human rights do you have?
  • How do we decide what should be a human right within a society?
  • What happens when people’s ideas of human rights come into conflict?
  • Can countries/governments be held to account for violation of basic human rights?

Present a current human rights issue and have students debate and consider the following responses to the questions above based on the issue, then develop some parameters for responses above.  Possible examples:

Does everyone have the right to:

  • clean drinking water?
  • food?
  • housing?
  • health care?
  • education?

Identify your students’ responses.

Examine where your response to question came from.

What influenced or guided your response?  What are the similarities and differences arising?  What themes are students noticing?

Vocabulary

  • Dignity
  • Compassion
  • Concern
  • Human Rights
  • Individual Rights
  • Collective Rights
  • Universal Rights
DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING
This section is the core of the lesson.  It describes the main activity(ies) involved.  In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the essential questions.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities.  This forms the  “They do” section of the inquiry where students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations. Teachers work with students to clarify understandings.
Strategies to develop and explore inquiries include:

  • Surfacing student thinking, posting, and then reflecting on thinking to note how thinking has changed and what has caused the changes.
  • Jigsaw strategy approach: Students, individually or in groups, explore similar questions, present their findings to the group. The teacher helps to note similarities, differences, themes.  Students are encouraged to develop summary statements to clarify their thinking and describe new learning.
  • Reflect on initial thinking to note how thinking has changed. What is the evidence to support the new learning? 
  • Continue to make connections to the Enduring Understandings.

Define:

  • human rights,
  • collective rights
  • individual rights
  • universal rights

In examining human rights issues have students use the Action Cycle strategy. For chosen issues have students Identify:

  • Conditions, Objectives, Actions, Result

As a class Think about… Talk about…

Choose 3 events that were turning points in the development of contemporary Human Rights.

Defend your choices.

Discussion of these points will clarify issues and mis-understandings that students may have.

What were the tipping points that culminated in the declaration of:

  • Human Rights?
  • Indigenous Declaration of Human Rights?
  • Declaration of the Rights of the Child?
  • Identify
    • What rights were infringed upon/violated/abused?
    • Context that allowed situation to exist
    • Prevailing ideology/worldview
    • Effects of agreements
Teacher Note

For all these inquiry suggestions, teachers are encouraged to make links to current national or international events that characterize the recurring citizenship themes and understandings.  Students should not see this information as something that happened in the past.  Rather students should understand that citizenship requires constant vigilance.

Surface student thinking in response to the prompts or guiding questions.  Chart or record their thinking for later reflection.

The statement: Geography is destiny.

  • What difference / how does your birthplace, time of birth, impact your human rights?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages that are inferred upon you because of your place of birth?

Basic Human Rights

  • Safe from violence,
  • Free,
  • Literate and Educated,
  • Access to Technology,
  • Live in a Democracy

Exploring a Universal Human Rights, Finding an International Other

Research some international human rights issues. 

See Section C for suggestions.

  • Tell why the issue or individual was chosen
    • Refer back to International Development Index – Indices of Well-being. Identify these indices and have them name why that issue or person was chosen
    • Rights that issue/ individuals do not have – impact on self/person
    • Prevailing ideology/worldview in country that allows issue to exist

Options for investigation

a) Pick a human rights inequity, undertake an action to address/redress the inequity.

Sources – http://www.amnesty.ca/

Find “their/my international other” and examine their issue.

Have students go to the website – choose an international issue they want to examine.  What privileges do you have as a Canadian that you can leverage to assist your international other?

b) Interview a refugee, newcomer to community about their human rights issue that brought them to Canada

Identify:

  • Conditions
    • Evidence that there is a problem
    • Current ideology of country/government that allows that situation to exist
    • Current state of human rights in the country
  • Objectives
    • What human right do you have that if applied to your international self would change their expected outcome?
  • Actions
    • What actions are you willing to assume to redress issue?
    • What collective actions are required to redress issue?
    • What actions can Canadians do to redress issue?
  • Results
    • What happened as a result of your actions?
    • What are your next steps?
Throughout these inquiries students are encouraged to practice the principles of dialectical thinking and work to consider multiple perspectives in their decision-making processes.

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section introduces the concepts and helps teachers gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and allow students to think about and talk about.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific and incidental teaching required to explore these outcomes. Vocabulary is introduced and noted here.  This section frames the “We do” portion of the lesson where teachers guide the initial structure of the inquiry.
In this inquiry, students are examining the:

  • Interconnections between social, economic, political, and cultural systems.
  • Relationship between collective and individual rights and societal political systems.
  • Controls over decision-making processes and their impact on distinctiveness and well-being.
Inquiry

How did events of the 20th and early 21st century influence our perspectives of and about citizenship and the rights of the individual?

  • What role did conflict play in this development?

Placing events in history

The purpose of this discussion is to surface students’ understanding of the interplay between historical events and ideology on citizenship and human rights issues.  Students are exploring themes of behaviour and looking for principles of civil interaction among them, rather than identifying the chronology of specific events.  Teachers may wish to use a timeline in the classroom to help students see that issues of power inequity, struggle for rights, etc. continue to recur through time.

Historical events

  • What are some of the historical events that have had an impact on our views of citizenship and human rights? Identify:
    • the issues and perspectives involved,
    • the ideologies or opposing constructs
    • the consequences of the event
    • the primary historical influences on current thinking of human rights

Effects of Imperialism and Colonialism

  • How have citizens in Canada been impacted / continue to be impacted by imperialism and colonialism? Identify:
    • the issues and perspectives involved,
    • the ideologies or opposing constructs
    • the consequences of the event
    • the primary historical influences on current thinking of human rights
  • How have imperialism and colonization affected the application of human rights
    • In Canada?
    • Globally?

Develop a list of events that students may wish to explore to find the answers to the questions posed above.

DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING
This section is the core of the lesson.  It describes the main activity(ies) involved.  In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the essential questions.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities. This forms the “We do” “They do” section of the inquiry where students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations.

Have students choose a specific area to consider and use the jigsaw strategy to research and present findings so that themes can be identified and explored.

Research options

Choose a specific event to research either in groups or individually.  Students are reminded that there are many options to research other than reading text.  Video and audio files can supplement research.  What resident experts are available to be interviewed for their views on the issue?

Allow students to present their findings.  Identify the time period of the event on the posted class timeline.

What did we learn? 

  • What similarities are students noticing?
  • What themes are arising?
  • What were/are the world conditions that allow the event to occur?
    • How often did the event have global consequences?
    • Why did that happen?
  • What constructs / principles are/were nations / stakeholders trying to balance?
    • rule by majority or greatest common good (greatest good for the greatest number)
    • What were the similarities and differences in philosophy?
      • What were the determiners, primary impacts on decisions?
      • Whose perspective / worldview was not represented?
    • What were the prevailing ideologies that impacted the decisions made and the forming of societal structures?
    • What was guiding their decision making? What were nations striving to achieve? i.e.
      • national security and international peace
      • wealth and power
      • competition vs. cooperation
Teacher Note

Citizenship challenges are ongoing.  Teachers are challenged to bring current issues into the classroom so that students can make citizenship connections. 

Teachers are encouraged to use the Historical Thinking Concepts constructs in exploring any of the inquiries.

Historical Thinking Connections 

Historical Significance: How do we decide what is important to learn about the past?

Primary Source Evidence: How do we know what we know about the past?

Cause and Consequence: Why do events happen and what are their impacts?

Historical Perspectives: How can we better understand the people of the past?

Ethical Dimension: How can history help us to live in the present?

Continuity and Change: How can we make sense of the complex flows of history?

  • What have been the consequences of the events on:
    • human rights,
    • traditional order and values?
    • other?
  • What was the progress achieved as a result of the event? i.e.
    • allowing as many people as possible to live;
    • giving as much wealth and power as possible; or,
    • learning to live in harmony with the environment.
    • other?
  • What was the impact on the relationship between competition and cooperation and the impact of each on (dealing with conflict in) society?
  • Were human rights expended in favour of the maintenance of order and security? i.e. What is more important to do?
    • Maintain order and security regardless of the legal protection of human rights; or,
    • Protect human rights regardless of the short-term effect on order and security?
  • Which was more critical to meet; the needs of the citizens or the needs of the state/country as a whole?
  • How was the global community impacted?

APPLY AND EXTEND KNOWLEDGE

This section includes ideas to extend the inquiry or apply concepts explored. This section may also include additional reflective questions to promote student connection to the topic.  This forms the “You do” section of the inquiry – may be “you do it collaboratively” or “you do it alone”.   Invite students to extend their thinking beyond the classroom discussions and inquiry experiences.  Pose additional reflective questions that have been raised to encourage critical and creative thinking.  
  • Should the future be viewed as something to be:
    • Resisted as threatening and dangerous; or
    • Welcomed as a natural process of change and development?
    • Does your answer depend on which side of privilege you lie?

Prepare a response to your thinking that is represented in a manner other than paper pencil presentation.

EVIDENCE OF LEARNING

This section suggests ways in which students may demonstrate their understanding.  Ideal demonstrations will be in authentic performance tasks.  Citizenship studies may have its own smaller assessment piece or be compiled to support one larger performance task assessment.  Assessment pieces vary, but should allow students to demonstrate their understanding in a variety of ways.
Have students demonstrate what they have learned about the questions.  How has their thinking changed from their initial thinking?  What evidence do they have to support their thinking?
Have students use the following prompts to make connections to or respond to any of the essential questions, the enduring understandings, or the inquiry questions to demonstrate their evidence of learning.

  • What do you think now about…?
  • What has caused your thinking to change?
  • What evidence supports your thinking?
  • Why is this information important to know?
  • How will you use this information?
Inquiry Questions

Are Human Rights Universal?

How did the events of the 20th and early 21st century influence our perspectives of and about citizenship?

Essential Questions 

  • In what ways is ideology useful in explaining human beliefs and behaviour?
  • What are the limitations of ideology in guiding beliefs and behaviour?
  • How does ideology influence our view of social justice?
  • How does a society structure itself to find a balance between opposing constructs of:
    • freedom and order, individual rights and collective rights, hierarchy and equality; and,
    • what factors influence the finding of this balance?
  • Has Canadian society been organized to reflect our national values and beliefs?

What kind of summary statements can students make regarding their understanding of the following:

  • Individuals in society make decisions as to what degree they will honour human rights.
  • Societies vary in their understanding and application of human rights and responsibilities.
  • Individuals and groups choose the obligations they will collectively assume for each other’s human rights.
Enduring Understandings

  • Injustices of today have roots in the past.
  • Canadian society is challenged to manage the co-existence of diverse worldviews.
  • Canadian citizens work to achieve a balance between rights and responsibilities through learning and action.
  • Canadian society has inequities and elimination of these is beneficial for all Canadians.
  • For each individual, becoming aware of racism in Canadian society is an evolutionary process and a precursor to change.
  • As citizens of local, national, and global communities, Canadians are conscious, self-reflective, and critical of their own beliefs and actions and seek to make positive change.
  • Citizens show flexibility of mind.
What connections are students making to the Enduring Understandings?

STUDENT CITIZENSHIP JOURNAL OPPORTUNITIES

Students will continue to explore their understanding of their role as a Canadian citizen and reflect on their perspective in an Ongoing Journal.  Look for video journaling opportunities. Art should be included throughout the journal; some to accompany the journal entry and some that are random drawings and sketching. The journal entries are a record of the student’s thinking and chronicle students’ reflection on their citizenship.

Students are keeping a Citizenship Journal to reflect upon their developing views of citizenship.  This section provides prompts for student journals.  Students are invited to choose one that interests them or propose their own. Students can also respond to any of the essential questions.

Students are encouraged to respond using a variety of genres.

  • Is it important for a citizen to be compassionate? Caring?
  • What did students learn about themselves in their research?
  • Should Canada continue to respond to global human rights issues when there are basic human rights that are not being fulfilled in Canada? (i.e. clean drinking water for First Nations reserves)

Part C

Inquiry Resources

Cross Curricular Connections

The Saskatchewan Ministry of Education English Language Arts Curriculum states:

“If students are to become lifelong learners, develop a sense of self and connection to others, and become engaged citizens and achieve the Cross-curricular Competencies and the outcomes for English language arts, students require meaningful, authentic contexts for learning. Students need many opportunities to explore questions and concerns about themselves and about the world.”

The Concentus Citizenship Education Resources provide teachers with a framework of inquires with which to further students’ explorations of their roles and responsibilities as Canadian citizens, in authentic contexts.  These inquiries are directly connected to Social Sciences (History, Native Studies, Social Studies) foundational outcomes and the broad goals of learning identified above.  Specific connections to English Language Arts and Treaty Education are identified and suggested as starting points for teachers.

English Language Arts 20 (Unit 2):

Contexts/Themes

Moving Forward – Establishing and Realizing (possible sub-units include: Turning Points and Transitions; Evolving Roles and Responsibilities; Opportunities and Obstacles; Risks and Rewards; Beliefs and Goals)

Essential Questions

  • How do our relationships with others evolve and influence us as we mature and age?
  • Are all the roles and the work associated with those roles valued or respected equally? How can you ensure that the work you do and the roles you play will be valued and respected equally?
  • What are contemporary expectations of adults? How do the roles and expectations of adults vary among cultures and through the various stages of adulthood?
  • As we mature and age, what are our responsibilities to self and to others? How do these responsibilities change?
  • What does the concept of a balanced life mean? How and why do we plan to achieve balance in our lives? Is the quest for balance universal?
  • How do our values and beliefs determine the paths of life that we may explore? What influences or necessitates the re-evaluation of our values and beliefs?

Treaty Education

  • TR11: Examine how Canada’s process of treaty making could be applied to situations in other parts of the world where Indigenous people have struggled to have rights recognized.
  • SI11: Analyze how the unfulfilled aspects of treaties, with international indigenous people, have resulted in inequities.
  • HC11: Evaluate specific treaties that have been, or currently are, in place globally to determine their effectiveness.
  • TPP11: Analyze the impact Canadian treaties could have on resolving global conflict.

Further Investigation Suggestions

When individuals abuse their rights how should society respond?

  • Is there a limit on individual rights? / Should individuals, because of their actions, have their rights limited?
  • What obligations do individuals have to maintain the dignity of each and every individual?
    • How does a society structure itself to find a balance between domestic considerations and international and/or colonial considerations?
    • From whose perspective are these decisions made?
    • What are the responsibilities of citizens to society?
    • What are the responsibilities of society to its citizens?
  • What rights are people entitled to regardless of their contribution to society and what obligations should everyone/people in society assume for others?
    • What rights are you entitled to?
    • What are the requirements for basic human rights?
    • What are the historical impacts on application of basic human rights?

Have students explore some of the UN codes of conduct, Universal Human Rights Codes i.e. Rights of the child, Disabled people, etc.

  • Identify a client, advocate for them and represent their issues in:
    • a court of law
    • a social media campaign
    • your community

Glossary

Use the following space to record a list of newly introduced, uncommon, or specialized terms or words generated during the inquiry study.

CITIZENSHIP STUDIES LEVEL 20: LIFELONG LEARNING CITIZENS

Part A

Broad Area of Citizenship: Social Studies, History, Native Studies

Lifelong Learning citizens continuously strive to understand the dynamics of change and critically seek new information to make reasoned and unbiased decisions.  This area of Citizenship study develops skills, attitudes and knowledge.  Citizens develop a critical understanding of, actively explore and analyze events and the effects of decisions on multiple governance levels.

High School students will identify and examine the effects of inequity and conflict using Canadian and world history as content and context.  They consider the impact of worldview in dealing with conflict and inequity (10); examine Canada’s reputation and role as a global citizen (20); and, consider the root causes of inequity and the challenges that multiple perspectives bring to resolving conflict (30).

Throughout the study, students engage in critical and dialectical thinking in order to ensure that multiple perspectives, consistent with Canada’s multicultural policy are considered.

Overview and Desired Results of Citizenship Study

Students continue to actively pursue and seek to understand multiple perspectives so that they can participate as citizens with a global perspective. With participation comes an examination of the roles and responsibilities of citizens nationally and globally.

Students explore a variety of worldviews to understand their impact on human rights and economic well-being.  They study the circumstances that allowed cultures and societies to accept intolerance and the practices of genocide.  Students will also examine the various ways that Indigenous cultures have attempted to deal with the legacy of colonization.  This area of citizenship encourages investigation of the roles and responsibilities of citizens within the world so that citizens can act to address issues of injustice.

20

  • Social Studies students will consider how conflicting worldviews have affected human rights and the economic well-being.
  • History students will consider how the application of a 20 century view of citizenship created the climates for intolerance and genocide.
  • Native Studies students will consider different approaches to overcoming the legacy of colonization and struggles for self-determination.

Enduring Understandings of Citizenship Study

Students will use this information to understand:

  • Injustices of today have roots in the past.
  • Canadian society is challenged to manage the coexistence of diverse worldviews.
  • Canadian citizens work to achieve a balance between rights and responsibilities through learning and action.
  • Canadian society has inequities and elimination of these is beneficial for all Canadians.
  • For each individual, becoming aware of racism in Canadian society is an evolutionary process and a precursor to change.
  • As citizens of local, national, and global communities, Canadians are conscious, self-reflective, and critical of their own beliefs and actions and seek to make positive change.
  • Citizens show flexibility of mind.
  • Enduring understandings and questions stimulate thinking, guide the inquiry and are linked to outcomes.
  • These questions point to the “big ideas’ in the area of inquiry and should be considered and reconsidered as the inquiry progresses.
  • Deliberation of these understandings forms the evidence of learning at the end of study.

Knowledge and Skill Development

Students will explore to understand:

  • The role and impact of International and National codes of Human Rights, Indigenous Peoples, Children, and Disabled Persons;
  • The backgrounds of various human rights and social justice issues;
  • Various forms of conflict and dispute resolution forums including: Court Trial, Sentencing Circles, Town Hall Meetings, Mediation, Truth and Reconciliation Commissions, Human Rights Tribunals; and,
  • A variety of negative examples of conflict resolution and their residual impact including: assimilation, annihilation, and segregation.

Students will be able to:

  • Use strategies for persuasion and advocacy and apply processes of ethical decision-making
  • Use criteria to evaluate personal and others perspectives
  • Learn to make and test hypotheses and organize data so that it can be analyzed.

Essential Questions

  • What does it mean to be a citizen?
  • Why is there conflict between worldviews?
  • What is required for conflicting worldviews to coexist?
  • What range of responses have citizens used throughout history to respond to conflicting worldviews?
  • How do engaged and respectful citizens respond to conflict in a modern democracy?
  • How does an ethical and democratic society define and pursue justice?
  • What issues and opportunities does Canada’s multicultural policy and affirmation of diversity create?
Essential Questions are open-ended questions that are continually revisited, encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study, form the evidence of understanding and frame the assessment at the end of the study.

Saskatchewan Curriculum Concept Connections

This section connects teachers and students to the concepts explored through Social Sciences Studies:  Social Studies, History, and Native Studies.  General outcomes/objectives are identified.  It is the opinion of the development committee that the outcomes incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore these outcomes/citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science area.

The order in which they are listed suggests a general idea of the learning plan to follow.

Students will:

  • Examine relevant social and historical issues for the purpose of understanding the impacts of differing worldviews;
  • Evaluate imperialist policies, practices and attitudes of the past and analyze the residual effects of such policies and practices in contemporary society;
  • Scrutinize the evolution of Citizenship as it pertains to Canadian and our World issues;
  • Examine the role diversity plays in society, noting the opportunities and inequities that arise in trying to affirm multiple perspectives;
  • Identify examples where the rights of the minority have not been respected in the 20th century;
  • Examine the challenges of protecting the rights of the minority while advancing the goals of society; and,
  • Generate conflict resolution strategies that create an atmosphere of respect for difference.
Students will:

  • critically seek and evaluate new information to recognize information gaps and make informed decisions;
  • analyze the debates of critical issues and evaluate the arguments of both sides;
  • recognize information gaps and refine skills to obtain information; and,
  • identify successful conflict resolution strategies.

Part B Learning Plan 20 -History, Native Studies, Social Studies

This section gives a brief overview of the students’ learning path, inquires students will be doing in class, and the various connections to larger concepts.
The citizenship inquiries incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science area.  
Teacher Note

Inquiries are identified and connections to Big Ideas are noted.  Teachers may begin with any inquiry or combine inquiries to use the approach that resonates best with their students.

Inquiry

Can global social justice be achieved?

  • Are nation’s citizens part of the global community?
  • Is Global citizenship a way to achieve global justice?
  • Is Canada a responsible, respectful and participatory Global citizen committed to social justice?

Big Ideas Explored:

  • History has contributed to the development of various solutions to Human Rights and Social Justice issues and Canada played a role in addressing these challenges.
  • Canada has a history of action in seeking global justice and continues to have a presence in actions in seeking global justice.
  • Canada’s citizenship performance can be contrasted to that of other nations.
  • An ethical and democratic society defines and pursues justice and evaluates the effectiveness of those processes. Issues include:
    • International Human Rights and Social Justice issues;
    • conflict and dispute resolution forums (Court Trial, Sentencing Circles, Town Hall Meeting, Mediation, Truth and Reconciliation Commissions, Human Rights Tribunals)
    • negative examples of conflict resolution and their residual impact (assimilation, annihilation, segregation).
  • Countries must evaluate the use of force to achieve peace; and,
  • Historic foundations impact current international issues.

Questions to Guide Inquiry

Essential questions frame the enduring understandings.  Guiding questions are more directly linked to inquiry and guide outline or progression of inquiry.
Teachers Note:
Essential questions are posted and discussed with students at the start of the exploration of study. These open-ended questions are continually revisited; encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study; form the evidence of understanding; and, frame the assessment at the end of the unit of study. Guiding questions are posed to support student thinking as they explore the answers to the larger overarching questions.  

Teachers may want to consider putting the questions into a “Before, During, After” chart to note the changes in students’ thinking as a result of the inquiries.

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • Why is there conflict between worldviews?
    • With the current state of instant access to global information, what is the impact of conflict?
    • Why do some conflicts gain global attention while others do not?
  • How can conflicting worldviews coexist?
    • Why do some conflicting worldviews co-exist while others do not?
    • How does the immediacy of information impact global conflict?
  • What range of responses have citizens used throughout history to respond to conflicting worldviews?
    • Have responses changed significantly? What has caused those changes?
  • How do engaged and respectful citizens respond to conflict in a modern democracy?
    • What are the responses to conflict in a democracy vs. totalitarian state?
  • How does an ethical and democratic society pursue justice?
    • How do we evaluate the ethics and justice of a society?
    • What role does ethics play in conflict?
    • How do engaged and respectful citizens and nations respond to conflict in a fair and just way?
    • What are the international change processes? How do we determine their success?
  • What issues and opportunities does Canada’s multicultural policy and affirmation of diversity create?
    • Does Canada’s multicultural policy result in a socially just society?

Surface and note additional student questions.

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section indicates ways to introduce the lesson by engaging students. Essential questions are posed here to frame the context for student thinking and have students begin thinking about the topic. Vocabulary is introduced and noted here.  Answers to essential questions establish a baseline regarding student understanding as they identify the basic knowledge that students have and give teachers an idea of what students will need to learn to explore these outcomes.  This section may also frame the “We do” portion of the lesson where teachers guide the initial structure of the inquiry.

Identifying the factors that influence the achievement of social justice.

This inquiry focuses on the considerations of nations when trying to achieve social justice on global issues.

Inquiry

Can global social justice be achieved?

  • Is global citizenship a way to achieve global justice?
  • Are nations citizens in the global community?
  • Is Canada a responsible, respectful and participatory Global citizen committed to social justice?

Hook Questions

  • What is justice, and how do we determine this?
  • Do we all agree on what is right? Why or why not?
  • Whose perspective do we use to determine what is right?
  • What do you have to think about when you are trying to achieve justice across a broad range of ideologies?
  • What processes and institutions do Canada and the world communities have in place to protect justice and the rights of others?
  • What happens when justice is not achieved?
  • How do different societies and cultures administer justice?
  • How do these processes compare to the way we, as Canadians perceive justice?
  • How does Canada’s reputation compare to other historical applications of justice?
  • What kind of a global citizen is Canada?

Pose questions and allow students opportunities to discuss.  Note their thinking for review after completion of some research. How has their thinking changed?

 

Vocabulary

  • Imperialist
  • Assimilation
  • Annihilation
  • Segregation
  • Democracy
  • Totalitarian
  • Ideology
DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING
This section is the core of the lesson.  It describes the main activity(ies) involved.  In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the essential questions.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities.  This forms the  “They do” section of the inquiry where students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations. Teachers work with students to clarify understandings.
Strategies to develop and explore inquiries include:

  • Surfacing student thinking, posting, and then reflecting on thinking to note how thinking has changed and what has caused the changes. What is the evidence to support the new learning?
  • Jigsaw strategy approach: Students, individually or in groups, explore similar questions, present their findings to the group. The teacher helps to note similarities, differences, themes.  Students are encouraged to develop summary statements to clarify their thinking and describe new learning.

Using the jigsaw study approach have students choose one of the following to research individually or in groups.  Specific suggestions are offered here but students are encouraged to identify any social justice issue that resonates with them to research.

Case Study Exploration suggestions

  • the 5 genocides officially recognized by Canada
    • the Holodomor (Ukrainian Famine),
    • Rwanda,
    • Srebrenica,
    • the Holocaust, and,
    • the Armenian genocide
  • Hiroshima/Nagasaki

Contemporary Case Studies suggestions

  • Global responses to Terrorism
  • Global response to refugees and establishing of Immigration policies
  • Global Warming
  • Global treatment of Indigenous people
  • Murdered and Missing Indigenous Women
  • UN Refugee Agency – http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/home
  • United Nations Development Programs – undp.org

For the example chosen identify:

  • the stakeholders and the issues from their perspective
  • the worldview/ ideology, and historical context that allowed this issue to exist.
  • the response of global citizens to the events
  • Canada’s response
  • Evaluate the responses
  • the influence of the event on individual and societal views of justice
  • the impact of the event on differences in perspective and worldview on our perception of justice
  • the influence of the event on your perception and pursuit of justice
Note:  Similarities and differences between the topics; the themes that are arising.

Go back to the essential questions and have students reflect on their initial thinking.  What changes are they finding after their research?  How has their thinking changed?

Evaluate the response of nations to global justice issues.

  • How well have nations been doing?
  • What considerations do nations have to think about now, that were not factors historically?
  • Which nations are doing well? Explain your thinking.
  • Evaluate Canada’s role as a global citizen. Identify strengths and suggest areas where growth is needed.

Pursuit of Justice and Conflict Resolution Studies

Have students choose a topic of concern within one of the following areas and:

  • Identify the issues on both sides of the debate
  • Critique recent resolutions
  • Propose alternative solutions
  • Develop a media campaign to address some of your recommendations to address the shortcomings.
  • Charter of Rights and Freedoms,
  • UN Codes,
  • race,
  • religion,
  • morality,
  • law,
  • politics,
  • culture,
  • economic trade sanctions,
  • global warming – extremes in weather,
  • use of global resources,
  • response to global debt in Third World countries
  • other

Historical Thinking Connections 

Historical Significance: How do we decide what is important to learn about the past?

Primary Source Evidence: How do we know what we know about the past?

Cause and Consequence: Why do events happen and what are their impacts?

Historical Perspectives: How can we better understand the people of the past?

Ethical Dimension: How can history help us to live in the present?

Continuity and Change: How can we make sense of the complex flows of history.

These are very “big” concepts.  Throughout this study, it is critical that teachers help students to step back to see the big picture.

  • What themes are emerging?
  • What are the similarities and differences?
  • Why do students think this is so?

The independence level of the class, will determine how much teacher direction is required to do this.

APPLY AND EXTEND KNOWLEDGE

This section includes ideas to extend the inquiry or apply concepts explored. This section may also include additional reflective questions to promote student connection to the topic.  This forms the “You do” section – extend thinking beyond the classroom discussions and inquiry experiences.  Pose additional reflective questions that have been raised to encourage critical and creative thinking.  
Possible Inquiry Questions for Extension:

  • Should respect for differing worldviews affect our pursuit of justice?
  • Do universal human rights exist?
  • How does technology and social media impact the outcomes of global justice issues?
  • What kind of leadership is needed to address global issues?

Ted Talks – Ted Global 2014

http://www.ted.com/talks/fred_swaniker_the_leaders_who_ruined_africa_and_the_generation_who_can_fix_it?utm_source=newsletter_weekly_2014-10-25&utm_campaign=newsletter_weekly&utm_medium=email&utm_content=bottom_left_button

EVIDENCE OF LEARNING

This section suggests ways in which students may demonstrate their understanding.  Ideal demonstrations will be in authentic performance tasks.  Each citizenship study may have its own smaller assessment piece or be compiled to support one larger performance task assessment.  Assessment pieces vary, but should allow students to demonstrate their understanding in a variety of ways.
Have students demonstrate what they have learned about the questions posed in the inquiry.  How has their thinking changed from their initial thinking?  What evidence do they have to support their thinking?
Have students use the following prompts to connect to or answer any of the essential questions, the enduring understandings, or the inquiry questions to demonstrate their evidence of learning.

  • What do you think now about…?
  • What has caused your thinking to change?
  • What evidence supports your thinking?
  • Why is this information important to know?
  • How will you use this information?
Inquiry

Can global social justice be achieved?

  • Are Nations citizens in the global community?
  • Is global citizenship a way to achieve global justice?
  • Is Canada a responsible, respectful and participatory Global citizen committed to social justice?
  • What responsibility do we have to pursue justice?
  • Should respect for differing worldviews affect our pursuit of justice?
  • Do universal human rights exist?
Enduring Understandings

  • Injustices of today have roots in the past.
  • Canadian society is challenged to manage the co-existence of diverse worldviews.
  • Canadian citizens work to achieve a balance between rights and responsibilities through learning and action.
  • Canadian society has inequities and elimination of these is beneficial for all Canadians.
  • For each individual, becoming aware of racism in Canadian society is an evolutionary process and a precursor to change.
  • As citizens of local, national, and global communities, Canadians are conscious, self-reflective, and critical of their own beliefs and actions and seek to make positive change.
  • Citizens show flexibility of mind.
Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • Why is there conflict between worldviews?
    • With the current state of instant access to global information, what is the impact of conflict?
    • Why do some conflicts gain global attention while others do not?
  • How can conflicting worldviews coexist?
    • Why do some conflicting worldviews co-exist while others do not?
    • How does the immediacy of information impact global conflict?
  • What range of responses have citizens used throughout history to respond to conflicting worldviews?
    • Have responses changed significantly? What has caused those changes?
  • How do engaged and respectful citizens respond to conflict in a modern democracy?
    • What are the responses to conflict in a democracy vs. totalitarian state?
  • How does an ethical and democratic society pursue justice?
    • How do we evaluate the ethics and justice of a society?
    • What role does ethics play in conflict?
    • How do engaged and respectful citizens and nations respond to conflict in a fair and just way?
    • What are the international change processes? How do we determine their success?
  • What issues and opportunities does Canada’s multicultural policy and affirmation of diversity create?
    • Does Canada’s multicultural policy result in a socially just society?

STUDENT CITIZENSHIP JOURNAL OPPORTUNITIES

Students will continue to explore their understanding of their role as a Canadian citizen and reflect on their perspective in an Ongoing Journal. Look for opportunities to include video journaling and blogging.   Art should be included throughout the journal; some to accompany the journal entry and some that are random drawings and sketching. The journal entries are a record of the student’s thinking and chronicle their changing views of citizenship.

Students are keeping a Citizenship Journal to reflect upon their developing views of citizenship.  This section provides prompts for student journals.  Students are invited to choose one that interests them or propose their own. Students can also respond to any of the essential questions.

Students are encouraged to respond using a variety of genres.

  • What did I learn about myself as I did these inquiries?
  • What kind of leadership is needed/required to address global social justice issues?
  • What kind of leader would I be? Why?
  • How would I have reacted upon hearing about the genocides, Holodomor, Holocaust, etc. at the time it was occurring?
  • What advice would I offer Canada’s Prime Minister when creating policy pertaining to specific conflicts like Rwanda, the Armenian Genocide, etc.?
  • What should be the global response to international acts of terrorism?

Part C

Inquiry Resources

ROVER (Recommended Online Video Education Resources) is a video streaming service for Saskatchewan teachers and students in the PreK-12 education system. It is managed and maintained by the Saskatchewan Ministry of Education.

The ROVER service is video-on-demand which provides teachers and students with the convenience of immediate access to streamed, educational videos that support curriculum. ROVER videos are housed on a server located in a school or school division network so there are no bandwidth issues, resulting in better picture quality and continuous play of videos without pauses. The videos are intended for viewing on the streaming site and not for copying or downloading.

There are over 1000 videos on ROVER that can be accessed by teachers and students to enhance learning in the classroom. All the videos found on this site have been evaluated by educational professionals and recommended to support Saskatchewan’s K-12 curricula. The ROVER collection of videos continues to evolve as new videos are added annually and old videos expire.

Case Studies Resources

  • Choose Your Voice (FAST – Fighting Antsemitism Together)
  • Fighting Antisemitism Together (FAST): http://www.fightingantisemitism.ca/
  • Voices into Action: http://www.voicesintoaction.ca
  • Facing History and Ourselves
  • Historical Thinking Project
  • The Critical Thinking Consortium – find website
  • Vancouver Holocaust Education Centre
  • Burma and the Great Awakening – CBC News in Review (R.O.V.E.R.)
  • Mandela (R.O.V.E.R.)
  • Nelson Mandela (R.O.V.E.R.)
  • North to Freedom: The Underground Railroad to Canada (R.O.V.E.R.)
  • The Dark Side of Chocolate (R.O.V.E.R.)
  • White Man’s Country (R.O.V.E.R.)
  • Women’s Rights: Raising the Glass Ceiling (R.O.V.E.R.)
  • EconomicJustice.ca
  • Holodomor Website: sharethestory.ca

Possible Resources for Conflict Resolution Procedures:

  • PLEA
  • Truth and Reconciliation Commission
  • Conflict Resolution Saskatchewan
  • Restorative Justice Online
  • Ontario Justice Education Network
  • The Centre for Justice and Accountability
  • Creative Spirits Website (Australia)
  • SaskDebate.com
  • Fundamental Freedoms: The Charter of Rights and Freedoms Video (R.O.V.E.R.)
  • Egale – http://egale.ca/
  • PFLAG – http://pflagcanada.ca
  • Williams Social – variety of videos with factual information to support Social Sciences https://www.youtube.com/user/WilliamsSocial/featured
  • Canadian Investigations: Civics and Citizenship , Bolotta, A., al (Donaldson, C., Duncan, I., Keirstead, M. Oxford University Press. 2014.  (Add to other resources list gr. 8 – 12)

Cross Curricular Connections

The Saskatchewan Ministry of Education English Language Arts Curriculum states:

“If students are to become lifelong learners, develop a sense of self and connection to others, and become engaged citizens and achieve the Cross-curricular Competencies and the outcomes for English language arts, students require meaningful, authentic contexts for learning. Students need many opportunities to explore questions and concerns about themselves and about the world.”

The Concentus Citizenship Education Resources provide teachers with a framework of inquires with which to further students’ explorations of their roles and responsibilities as Canadian citizens, in authentic contexts.  These inquiries are directly connected to Social Sciences (History, Native Studies, Social Studies) foundational outcomes and the broad goals of learning identified above.  Specific connections to English Language Arts and Treaty Education are identified and suggested as starting points for teachers.

English Language Arts 20 (Unit 2):

Contexts/Themes

Moving Forward – Establishing and Realizing (possible sub-units include: Turning Points and Transitions; Evolving Roles and Responsibilities; Opportunities and Obstacles; Risks and Rewards; Beliefs and Goals)

Essential Questions

  • How do our relationships with others evolve and influence us as we mature and age?
  • Are all the roles and the work associated with those roles valued or respected equally? How can you ensure that the work you do and the roles you play will be valued and respected equally?
  • What are contemporary expectations of adults? How do the roles and expectations of adults vary among cultures and through the various stages of adulthood?
  • As we mature and age, what are our responsibilities to self and to others? How do these responsibilities change?
  • What does the concept of a balanced life mean? How and why do we plan to achieve balance in our lives? Is the quest for balance universal?
  • How do our values and beliefs determine the paths of life that we may explore? What influences or necessitates the re-evaluation of our values and beliefs?

Treaty Education

  • TR11: Examine how Canada’s process of treaty making could be applied to situations in other parts of the world where Indigenous people have struggled to have rights recognized.
  • SI11: Analyze how the unfulfilled aspects of treaties, with international indigenous people, have resulted in inequities.
  • HC11: Evaluate specific treaties that have been, or currently are, in place globally to determine their effectiveness.
  • TPP11: Analyze the impact Canadian treaties could have on resolving global conflict.

Further Investigation Suggestions

  • Using various historical and contemporary examples of injustice, have the students engage in various justice forums:
    • Court Trial,
    • Sentencing Circles,
    • Town Hall Meeting,
    • Mediation,
    • Truth and Reconciliation Commissions,
    • Human Rights Tribunals.

CITIZENSHIP STUDIES LEVEL 20: CITIZENS CONNECTED TO SELF, COMMUNITY, AND PLACE

Part A

Broad Area of Citizenship: Social Studies, History, Native Studies

“Diversity is a fundamental aspect of human interaction. Living together as members of society requires understanding and appreciation of human diversity and diverse perspectives.” (Social Studies 9 (2009) Ministry of Education)

Citizens connected to Self, Community, and Place value and demonstrate a commitment to understanding the connections between people, the societies they create, and the environment in which they live.   They strive to right inequities of social injustice.

Students begin by examining causes of injustice and the considerations that must occur when trying to redress wrongs (10).   They move to understanding the implications of injustice at the international level (20) and consider the additional complications of working with many countries with differing ideologies and political structures.  In the final year of study (30) students continue to examine the historical and contemporary issues that arise from injustice and the structures, societal, and political that perpetuate ongoing inequities, including acceptance of the status quo.

Overview and Desired Results of Citizenship Study

Students understand the attributes of engaged citizenship and the importance and purpose of community stewardship.  They extend their recognition of social justice issues and consider the requirements necessary to work towards a resolution for issues, on an international, global level.

Students examine the history of cultures living together; examine the impact of ideology on the way society responds to current inequities; and, consider historical mechanisms to address injustice.

20

  • Social Studies students will consider the various ideological responses to current and/or historical inequities.
  • Historical Studies students will consider and assess mechanisms to resolve inequity and injustice.
  • Native Studies students will evaluate approaches to acculturation over time (annihilation, assimilation, accommodation)

Enduring Understandings of Citizenship Study

Students will use this information to understand:

  • Injustices of today have roots in the past.
  • Canadian society is challenged to manage the coexistence of diverse worldviews.
  • Canadian citizens work to achieve a balance between rights and responsibilities through learning and action.
  • Canadian society has inequities and elimination of these is beneficial for all Canadians.
  • For each individual, becoming aware of racism in Canadian society is an evolutionary process and a precursor to change.
  • As citizens of local, national, and global communities, Canadians are conscious, self-reflective, and critical of their own beliefs and actions and seek to make positive change.
  • Citizens show flexibility of mind.
  • Enduring understandings and questions stimulate thinking, guide the inquiry and are linked to outcomes.
  • These questions point to the “big ideas’ in the area of inquiry and should be considered and reconsidered as the inquiry progresses.
  • Deliberation of these understandings forms the evidence of learning at the end of study.

Knowledge and Skill Development

Students will know:

  • Criteria to identify Social Justice Issues
  • Strategies to affect change
  • Systemic elements of injustice

Students will be able to:

  • Identify and analyze social justice issues
  • Compare and contrast strategies to address those issues
  • Investigate the underlying causes of social injustice

Essential Questions

  • What is social justice?
  • Why do injustices exist?
  • What responsibility do individuals have to address injustices in society? How could this be accomplished?
  • What responsibilities do governments have to address injustices in society? How can this be accomplished?
Essential Questions are open-ended questions that are continually revisited, encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study, form the evidence of understanding and frame the assessment at the end of the study.

Saskatchewan Curriculum Concept Connections

This section connects teachers and students to the concepts explored through Social Sciences Studies:  Social Studies, History, and Native Studies.  General outcomes/objectives are identified.  It is the opinion of the development committee that the outcomes incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore these outcomes/citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science areas.

Students will:

  • Investigate a variety of injustices: historical, social, religious, and cultural;
  • Examine ways in which we/individuals contribute to current problems;
  • Recognize issues of social justice and work towards a resolution for these issues, on a regional, national, global level;
    • Indigenous issues
    • Gender based issues
    • Environmental issues
    • Socio-economic issues
    • Cultural issues
  • Understand the importance and purpose of community stewardship and take action at provincial, national, and global levels;
  • Know that human rights are more than “demands for rights”; they involve a moral entitlement to the Rights in question which other people in society have collectively decided they will honour; and,
  • Know that a human rights claim by an individual or group imposes a set of responsibilities and obligations which other individuals and groups must honour.

Part B Learning Plan 20 – History, Native Studies, Social Studies

This section gives a brief overview of the students’ learning path, inquires students will be doing in class, and the various connections to larger concepts.
The citizenship inquiries incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science area.  
Teacher Note

Throughout these inquiries students are encouraged to practice the principles of dialectical thinking and work to consider multiple perspectives in their decision-making processes.

Inquiry

How should nations address injustice?

  • What are the considerations at the International level to redress injustice?
  • What is required for global intervention?
  • What happens when good people do nothing?

Big Ideas Explored:

  • A variety of injustices: historical, social, religious, and cultural exist;
  • Individuals contribute to current problems; and,
  • Issues of social justice require a resolution that can exist at regional, national, and global levels and encompass a variety areas that include:
    • Indigenous issues
    • Gender based issues
    • Environmental issues
    • Socio-economic issues
    • Cultural issues.

Students will be asked to explore a variety of international social justice inequities to understand the moral entitlement to human rights and the differences in levels of human rights protection within countries.

  • Do all countries have equal levels of human rights protection?
  • What are the differences, similarities, and themes that students are noticing?

Exploration of these differences will raise questions about the considerations that arise when trying to address issues at a global level.

  • What are the processes when trying to address issues of injustice in a foreign country?
  • What responsibilities and rights do countries have to impose their belief system on one another?
  • What are the written and unwritten rules of global resolution?

Finally students will understand the importance and purpose of community stewardship and be encouraged to take action on an issue.

Questions to Guide Inquiry

Essential questions are posed here to frame the context for student thinking and have students begin thinking about the topic. Answers to essential questions establish a baseline regarding student understanding as they identify the basic knowledge that students have and give teachers an idea of what students will need to learn to explore these outcomes. The essential questions and inquiries incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore these citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science areas.  
Teacher Note:

Essential questions and guiding questions are posed to support teachers as they facilitate students’ exploration of the inquiry.  Teachers are encouraged to adjust the wording, omit, or add questions as they choose.

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • What is social justice?
    • How does social justice vary from country to county, culture to culture?
    • Are social justice standards/expectations the same?
    • From whose perspective is social justice considered?
  • Why do injustices exist?
    • What is injustice? How do we know it is injustice?
    • What are the links between the causes and the country?
    • What are the patterns at the international level?
  • What can be done about injustice?
    • How do we decide which injustice to address?
    • Are there similarities in the ways with which injustices are dealt?
  • What responsibility do individuals have to address injustices in society?
    • Why do injustices exist in free and democratic societies?
    • How can engaged citizens affect positive change?

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section introduces the concepts and helps teachers gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and allow students to think about and talk about.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific and incidental teaching required to explore these outcomes. Vocabulary is introduced and noted here.  This section frames the “We do” portion of the lesson where teachers guide the initial structure of the inquiry.

Inquiry

How should nations address injustice?

  • What are the considerations at the International level when trying to redress injustice?
  • What is required for global intervention?
  • What happens when good people do nothing?

Hook Questions Think about… Talk about…

  • What rights should people be entitled to regardless of their contribution to society?
  • What obligations should everyone in society assume for others?
  • What has been the history of dealing with injustice?
  • What is the success rate?

Reflect upon/ have students research a specific injustice, historical or contemporary. (Students have been studying a number in other areas of citizenship.)

Present the results according to prompts below or have the students assume the historical persona of someone in the position to be able to combat a historical injustice.

  • Who are/were the stakeholders and what are/were the issues? Why are/were they significant?
  • What actions were taken to make a positive difference and what was the impact of those actions?
  • What challenges were faced in trying to right this wrong?
  • How would today’s world be different if success had been achieved in addressing this injustice?
  • How has social media and technology influenced this issue?
  • What are the similarities and differences between the issues?
  • What themes are students noticing?
  • Develop a list of important criteria to attend to in addressing social justice issues.
  • Have students discuss / assess / rate the effectiveness of the criteria.
  • Post thinking

Vocabulary

  • Ideology
  • Injustice
  • Social Justice
DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING
This section is the core of the lesson.  It describes the main activity(ies) involved.  In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the essential questions.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities.  This forms the  “They do” section of the inquiry where students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations. Teachers work with students to clarify understandings.
Strategies to develop and explore inquiries include:

  • Surfacing student thinking, posting, and then reflecting on thinking to note how thinking has changed and what has caused the changes.
  • Jigsaw strategy approach: Students, individually or in groups, explore similar questions, present their findings to the group. The teacher helps to note similarities, differences, themes.  Students are encouraged to develop summary statements to clarify their thinking and describe new learning.

What happens when good people do nothing?

Action for Change Symposium / Inquiry:

Clarify with students, reasons for choosing the issue they will be focusing on.

  • Criteria to narrow their focus include:
    • relevance,
    • importance,
    • proximity,
    • interest,
    • possible impact [racial, social, economic, political],
    • urgency,
    • timeline,
    • likelihood of success,
    • available resources

Social Justice Issue Considerations

  • Expose students to information from a wide variety of social justice issues.
    • Human Rights Watch – hrw.org for current international issues or
    • Democracy Watch – democracywatch.ca for Canadian issues.
  • Group the class for further investigation.

 

 

How does the International community try to redress injustice?  What are the considerations at the International level?

For your particular area of research identify:

  • Issue issues from stakeholders’ perspective
  • What has already been done?
  • Who has a vested interest in maintaining the status quo?
  • What are the short term and long term targets for change?
  • What skills/resources do we need to affect this change?
  • What allies can I access?
  • What barriers will I face?
  • How will this help my personal citizenship growth?
Jigsaw Research and Study Process

Divide class into groups and give each group a specific area of research to learn about and present to class.  Each group must find out the information in the question posed below.  Encourage students to present information learned in a variety of modes including speaking, writing, drama, multimedia, or other modes so that all students have an entrance point for demonstrating their learning and understanding.

With students, develop criteria to assess these strategies and determine which ones can be used to best affect change in their chosen issue. 

In reporting and reflecting upon their process in addressing a specific social justice issue have students:

  • Identify strategy
  • Examine and evaluate their strategy for change
  • Identify the impact of their actions.
  • What criteria did you use in choosing your specific social justice issue?
  • What are the root causes of the issue?
  • Where did you find your information?
  • What criteria did you use in selecting the action you took?
  • What were your successes?
  • What challenges did you experience?
  • What are the barriers to the change you are trying to create?
  • Who has a vested interest in maintaining the status quo, and why?
  • What are the implications of change for all stakeholders (those with power, those seeking change, those indirectly affected, etc)?
  • What would you do differently next time?
  • How did your thinking about the issue evolve during the process?
  • What are the next steps you will take?

APPLY AND EXTEND KNOWLEDGE

This section includes ideas to “wrap up” the inquiry or apply concepts explored. This section may also include additional reflective questions to promote student connection to the topic.  This forms the “You do” section – extend thinking beyond the classroom discussions and inquiry experiences.  Pose additional reflective questions that have been raised to encourage critical and creative thinking.  

Implement the Action Plan

(This will require time.  Should be started at beginning of year)

  • Have the students assess the impact of their actions. Did they achieve the desire results? What more can be done?
  • Conduct the Action for Change Symposium as a class.
  • Do all countries have equal levels of human rights protection?
  • What are the differences, similarities, and themes that students are noticing?
  • What are the processes when trying to address issues of injustice in a foreign country?
  • What responsibilities do countries have to impose their belief system on one another?
  • What are the written and unwritten rules of global resolution?
  • What happens when good people choose to do nothing?

EVIDENCE OF LEARNING

This section suggests ways in which students may demonstrate their understanding.  Ideal demonstrations will be in authentic performance tasks.  Each citizenship study may have its own smaller assessment piece or be compiled to support one larger performance task assessment.  Assessment pieces vary, but should allow students to demonstrate their understanding in a variety of ways.
Have students use the following prompts to make connections to or respond to any of the essential questions, the enduring understandings, or the inquiry questions to demonstrate their evidence of learning.

  • What do you think now about…?
  • What has caused your thinking to change?
  • What evidence supports your thinking?
  • Why is this information important to know?
  • How will you use this information?
Inquiry Questions

How should nations redress injustice?

What are the considerations at the International level?

Social Justice Issue Reflection

For each prompt give your reasons and explain your thinking.

  • How would you rate your resolution of your social justice issue?
  • What were you most pleased about?
  • What continues to cause you concern?
  • What needs to change in order for you to achieve a stronger resolution?

Additional Inquiry Questions for Assessment:

  • Can all social justice issues be resolved satisfactorily?
  • Do citizens have an obligation to get involved in all social justice issues?
  • What would be your criteria for satisfactory resolution of social justice issues?
  • What is critical to attend to in resolving social justice issues at the international level?
  • What is required from the global community for successful resolution of social justice issues to occur?
  • What are some of the barriers that keep citizens from becoming involved in social justice issues?
Enduring Understandings

  • Injustices of today have roots in the past.
  • Canadian society is challenged to manage the co-existence of diverse worldviews.
  • Canadian citizens work to achieve a balance between rights and responsibilities through learning and action.
  • Canadian society has inequities and elimination of these is beneficial for all Canadians.
  • For each individual, becoming aware of racism in Canadian society is an evolutionary process and a precursor to change.
  • As citizens of local, national, and global communities, Canadians are conscious, self-reflective, and critical of their own beliefs and actions and seek to make positive change.
  • Citizens show flexibility of mind.
Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • What is social justice?
    • How does social justice vary from country to county, culture to culture?
    • Are social justice standards/expectations the same?
    • From whose perspective is social justice considered?
  • Why do injustices exist?
    • What is injustice? How do we know it is injustice?
    • What are the links between the causes and the country?
    • What are the patterns at the international level?
  • What can be done about injustice?
    • How do we decide which injustice to address?
    • Are there similarities in the ways with which injustices are dealt?
  • What responsibility do individuals have to address injustices in society?
    • Why do injustices exist in free and democratic societies?
    • How can engaged citizens affect positive change?

STUDENT CITIZENSHIP JOURNAL OPPORTUNITIES

Students will continue to explore their understanding of their role as a Canadian citizen and reflect on their perspective in an Ongoing Journal.  Art should be included throughout the journal; some to accompany the journal entry and some that are random drawings and sketching. The journal entries are a record of the student’s thinking and should be completed with a sense of pride.

Students are keeping a Citizenship Journal to reflect upon their developing views of citizenship.  This section provides prompts for student journals.  Students are invited to choose one that interests them or propose their own. Students can also respond to any of the essential questions.

Students are encouraged to respond using a variety of genres.

  • What did you learn about social justice at the international level that surprised you?
  • Why did you learn about yourself that surprised you?
  • What makes you care about injustice at the international level? Explain your thinking.

Part C

Inquiry Resources

  • Take Action: A Guide to Active Citizenship (Kielburger)
  • Service-Learning: From Classroom to Community to Career (Watkins and Braun)
  • Active Citizenship: Student Action Projects (Case, Falk, Smith and Werner)
  • The Complete Guide to Service Learning: Prove, Practical Ways to Engage Students in Civic Responsibility, Academic Curriculum, and Social Action (Kane)
  • The Kid’s Guide to Social Action: How to Solve the Social Problems You Choose – And Turn Creative Thinking Into Positive Action (Lewis)
  • WeDay.com
  • Upworthycom
  • The Rise of the Occupy Movement (R.O.V.E.R.)
  • BC Teacher’s Federation
  • Canadian Teacher’s Federation
  • Teaching for Peace
  • Canadian Civil Liberties Association
  • Democracy Watch – democracywatch.ca
  • Human Rights Watch – hrw.org
  • Amnesty International:
  • Fighting Antisemitism Together (FAST): http://www.fightingantisemitism.ca/
  • Voices into Action: http://www.voicesintoaction.ca

Cross Curricular Connections

The Saskatchewan Ministry of Education English Language Arts Curriculum states:

“If students are to become lifelong learners, develop a sense of self and connection to others, and become engaged citizens and achieve the Cross-curricular Competencies and the outcomes for English language arts, students require meaningful, authentic contexts for learning. Students need many opportunities to explore questions and concerns about themselves and about the world.”

The Concentus Citizenship Education Resources provide teachers with a framework of inquires with which to further students’ explorations of their roles and responsibilities as Canadian citizens, in authentic contexts.  These inquiries are directly connected to Social Sciences (History, Native Studies, Social Studies) foundational outcomes and the broad goals of learning identified above.  Specific connections to English Language Arts and Treaty Education are identified and suggested as starting points for teachers.

English Language Arts 20 (Unit 2):

Contexts/Themes

Moving Forward – Establishing and Realizing (possible sub-units include: Turning Points and Transitions; Evolving Roles and Responsibilities; Opportunities and Obstacles; Risks and Rewards; Beliefs and Goals)

Essential Questions

  • How do our relationships with others evolve and influence us as we mature and age?
  • Are all the roles and the work associated with those roles valued or respected equally? How can you ensure that the work you do and the roles you play will be valued and respected equally?
  • What are contemporary expectations of adults? How do the roles and expectations of adults vary among cultures and through the various stages of adulthood?
  • As we mature and age, what are our responsibilities to self and to others? How do these responsibilities change?
  • What does the concept of a balanced life mean? How and why do we plan to achieve balance in our lives? Is the quest for balance universal?
  • How do our values and beliefs determine the paths of life that we may explore? What influences or necessitates the re-evaluation of our values and beliefs?

Treaty Education

  • TR11: Examine how Canada’s process of treaty making could be applied to situations in other parts of the world where Indigenous people have struggled to have rights recognized.
  • SI11: Analyze how the unfulfilled aspects of treaties, with international indigenous people, have resulted in inequities.
  • HC11: Evaluate specific treaties that have been, or currently are, in place globally to determine their effectiveness.
  • TPP11: Analyze the impact Canadian treaties could have on resolving global conflict.

Glossary

Use the following space to record a list of newly introduced, uncommon, or specialized terms or words generated during the inquiry study.

Appendix

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