30 LEVEL RESOURCES

The Intentional & Direct Teaching of Essential Citizenship Competencies

CITIZENSHIP STUDIES LEVEL 30: ENGAGED CITIZENS

Part A

Broad Area of Citizenship: Social Studies/History/Native Studies

Engaged Citizens question, critically examine, advocate, and defend rights and responsibilities of democracy at local, national, and global levels.  They strive to understand the impact of ideology on issues and actions connected with diversity, rights and responsibilities, and various levels of governance.

High school students analyze and explore the concept of Ideology:

  • by investigating a range of Ideologies and their application and impact on citizenship at the national level (10);
  • by evaluating the impacts of ideology, historically and contemporary, at international levels (20);
  • by examining and analyzing, and de-constructing the concept of ideology as a tool for understanding how it impacts Canadian (30):
    • beliefs and actions, nationally and globally; and,
    • participation as a citizen from a national and global perspective.

Overview and Desired Results of Citizenship Study

This year is focused on addressing and resolving issues.  Students examine Canadian history to understand the influences on our contemporary rights, responsibilities, and views of citizenship.  Students examine issues facing Canadians and the global community regarding citizenship, specifically the foundational beliefs of Canadians.  Students also consider the role of cooperation in a competitive society.  Throughout all these inquiries, students are asked to consider multiple perspectives especially those of Indigenous populations.

30

  • Social Studies students will consider how Canadians address and resolve issues regarding rights and responsibilities as citizens in contemporary Canada.
  • History students will consider how events in Canadian history influenced our perspectives on rights and responsibilities of citizenship.
  • Native Studies students will consider the need for and approaches to resolution of contemporary issues for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations.

Enduring Understandings of Citizenship Study

Students will use this information to understand that:

  • Injustices of today have roots in the past.
  • Canadian society is challenged to manage the co-existence of diverse worldviews.
  • Canadian citizens work to achieve a balance between rights and responsibilities through learning and action.
  • Canadian society has inequities and elimination of these is beneficial for all Canadians.
  • For each individual, becoming aware of racism in Canadian society is an evolutionary process and a precursor to change.
  • As citizens of local, national, and global communities, Canadians are conscious, self-reflective, and critical of their own beliefs and actions and seek to make positive change.
  • Citizens show flexibility of mind.
  • Enduring understandings and questions stimulate thinking, guide the inquiry and are linked to outcomes.
  • These questions point to the “big ideas’ in the area of inquiry and should be considered and reconsidered as the inquiry progresses.
  • Answers to these understandings form the evidence of learning at the end of study.

Knowledge and Skill Development

Students will know:

  • The definition of ideology and its role in society.
  • Characteristics and assumptions of ideologies along the ideological spectrum.
  • Historical and contemporary ideological issues.
  • The role of worldview in ideologies.
  • The rights and responsibilities of Canadian and Global citizens.

Essential Questions

  • What are the benefits and limitations of ideology in guiding beliefs and behavior?
  • How does ideology influence our view of social justice?
  • How does a society structure itself to find a balance between the rights of opposing constructs, i.e. minorities and majorities; regions and the nation; individual rights and collective rights; and, what factors influence the finding of this balance?
  • Has Canadian society been organized to reflect our national values and beliefs?

Essential Questions are open-ended questions that are continually revisited, encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study, form the evidence of understanding and frame the assessment at the end of the study.

Saskatchewan Curriculum Concepts

This section connects teachers and students to the concepts explored through Social Sciences Studies:  Social Studies, History, and Native Studies.  General outcomes/objectives are identified.  It is the opinion of the development committee that the outcomes incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore these outcomes/citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science area.

The order in which concepts are listed suggests a general idea of the learning plan to follow.

Students will:

  • Examine approaches to resolution of Canadian issues;
  • Explore the relationship between the conceptual frameworks that exist within Canadian society; the impacts of competition among interest groups for influence over society’s decision-making processes; and the reality that groups will vary in terms of their ability and strategies to influence those processes;
  • Explore the challenges that Canadian society and its institutions face within an increasingly diverse society and that the unity and well-being of the nation will be influenced by the extent to which significant populations feel that their interests and well-being are being enhanced and secured within the existing political structure;
  • Examine the essential elements of Canadian worldview and consider factors that encourage and inhibit engaged citizenship; and,
  • Examine the social changes that are occurring in their lives, including the impact of media and technology and understand that social change has been a constant in the history of Canada.

Students will develop and apply the principles of dialectical thinking, dialectical examination and moral testing through exploration of local, regional, national, and global interdependence matters.

Part B Learning Plan 30 – Social Studies, History, Native Studies

This section gives a brief overview of the students’ learning path, inquires students will be doing in class, and the various connections to larger concepts.

Inquiries are identified and connections to Big Ideas are noted.  Teachers may begin with any inquiry or combine inquiries to use the approach that resonates best with their students.

The citizenship inquiries incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science areas.

Inquiry

What does it mean to be an engaged Canadian citizen?

  • What beliefs do engaged citizens share?
  • Whose worldviews make up Canadian worldview?

Big Ideas Explored:

  • Beliefs and worldview shape our views of Canadian citizenship;
  • There are factors that encourage and inhibit engaged citizenship;
  • Canadians have processes to address and resolve issues regarding rights and responsibilities as citizens in contemporary Canada;
  • Canada is challenged to accommodate the needs of diverse populations with competing interests;
  • Events in Canadian history influenced our current perspectives on rights and responsibilities of citizenship; and,
  • The evolution of media and technology has impacted perceptions and practices of citizenship.

Inquiry

Why do we have the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Human Rights Codes, and our Constitution?

  • How do those documents reflect and influence Canadian beliefs?
  • Are core Canadian beliefs possible in a multi-cultural society?

Big Ideas Explored:

  • The Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Human Rights Legislation, federally and provincially, and the Canadian Constitution are documents that guide Canadian behaviour, policies and practices and form the essential elements of Canadian worldview;
  • Canadian First Nations and Treaty rights are historical and documented, but often interpreted through worldviews that do not reflect:
  • the common elements of First Nations knowledge and philosophy that provided the basis for First Nations and Treaty rights;
  • the impacts of Canada’s expansionism on the interpretation of Canadian First Nations and Treaty rights; and,
  • the influences of diversity and Canadian multicultural policy.

Questions to Guide Inquiry

Essential questions are posed here to frame the context for student thinking and have students begin thinking about the topic. Answers to essential questions establish a baseline regarding student understanding as they identify the basic knowledge that students have and give teachers an idea of what students will need to learn to explore these outcomes. The essential questions and inquiries incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore these citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science area.

Teacher Note

Essential questions and guiding questions are posed to support teachers as they facilitate students’ exploration of the inquiry.  Teachers are encouraged to adjust the wording, omit, or add questions as they choose.

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • What are the benefits and limitations of ideology in guiding beliefs and behavior?
    • How are a country’s values and beliefs reflected in their approaches to conflict resolution?
      • How are an individual’s values and beliefs reflected in their approaches to conflict resolution?
    • What are Canada’s issues of conflict nationally and internationally?
    • What is Canada’s record in conflict resolution, nationally and internationally?
  • How does ideology influence our view of social justice?
    • What social justice issues currently impact Canadian society?
    • What is the relationship between ideology and action on these issues?
  • How does a society structure itself to find a balance between the rights of opposing constructs, i.e. minorities and majorities; regions and the nation; individual rights and collective rights; and, what factors influence the finding of this balance?
    • How are Canadian views of social justice reflected in our policies and documents that address the issues above?
    • How well did Canada do?
  • How does society achieve a balance between the responsibilities of citizens to society and society’s responsibilities to its citizens?
    • What events have had an impact on Canada’s perspectives of citizenship rights and responsibilities?
    • How are those impacts evident?
    • What responsibility do we as citizens have to our neighbours?
    • What responsibility does Canada have to the global community?Surface additional questions that students have.
  • Has Canadian society been organized to reflect national values and beliefs?
    • Whose worldviews are represented in our citizenship behaviours /agreements, locally, nationally and globally?
    • What historical influences are evident in our current citizenship behaviours/ agreements, nationally, and globally?

Surface additional questions that students have.

Teacher Note

Citizenship challenges are ongoing.  Teachers are challenged to bring current issues into the classroom so that students can make citizenship connections. 

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section indicates ways to introduce the lesson by engaging students. Inquiries are posted along with possible guiding questions to frame the context for student thinking and encourage students to begin thinking about the topics raised in the inquiry. Vocabulary that needs to be introduced and clarified is noted here.    This section may also frame the “We do” portion of the lesson where teachers guide the initial structure of the inquiry.

Teacher Note

  • Surface student thinking in response to the prompts or hook questions posed.
  • Add questions from students; adjust the wording of questions as needed.
  • Chart student thinking for later reflection.

Canadian Citizenship Engagement

This inquiry examines the beliefs, constructs, and influences that shape views of Canadian citizens and the degrees to which policies increase or decrease engagement in citizenship activities.  Students will also consider the impact of technology in all aspects of citizenship and mobilization.

Inquiry

What does it mean to be an engaged Canadian citizen?

  • What beliefs do engaged citizens share?
  • Whose worldviews make up Canadian worldview?
  • How do our beliefs and worldviews shape our views of Canadian citizenship?

Choose the questions that resonate best with students.

  • What are the indicators/criteria of engaged citizenship?
  • How do we know when to get involved?
  • What are the degrees of engagement necessary to determine whether a society is a democracy?
  • What are the factors that encourage and inhibit engaged citizenship?
  • What is the impact of media and technology in the perception and practice of citizenship?

Canadian government is based on principles of:

“Peace, Order, and Good Government”.

  • What beliefs are reflected in those statements?
  • What kinds of citizens might it create?
  • How are the ideological principles in the statement above, reflected in Canadian policy, legislation?
    • e. gun control, Canada’s peace-keeping forces, seat belt legislation, cell phone usage legislation, other.

See Further Investigations Suggestions, Part C for comparisons to USA.

DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING

In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the inquiry question.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities.  This forms the  “They do” section of the inquiry where  students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations. Teachers work with students to clarify understandings.

Jigsaw Research and Study Process

Have students divide into groups and choose a particular area of study.  Each group must find out the information in the questions posed.  Encourage students to present information learned in a variety of modes including speaking, writing, drama, multimedia, or other modes so that all students have an entrance point for demonstrating their learning and understanding.

Structured inquiry suggestions are noted here but teachers, familiar with inquiry are free to use the inquiry questions to support students’ exploration of issues of their choosing

This part of the inquiry connects Canada’s actions to an ideology or worldview to consider the kind of citizens and degrees of citizenship engagement each creates.  Students examine Canada’s history in treatment of their citizens to see how ideology is reflected in that behaviour.

  • What are the benefits and limitations of ideology in guiding beliefs and behavior?
    • How are a country’s values and beliefs reflected in their approaches to conflict resolution?
  • What does Canada’s method of conflict resolution, say about its citizenship beliefs?
  • What are the evolutions of citizenship in Canada?
  • What kind of Citizen is Canada?

Using the jigsaw research process, have students explore the answers to these questions in the following historical examples or in contemporary conflict issues.  What themes are surfacing?

  • How have these events influenced our perspectives on rights and responsibilities of citizenship?
    • BNA Act
    • Impacts of Canada’s performance as a nation in WWI or WWII
    • Great Depression of 1930’s
    • Choose your own
  • What were the impacts of some of these change events? How did they shape Canada’s history and relationship with its citizens?
    • First contact between the Aboriginal peoples and the Europeans
    • The Quebec Act
    • The Rebellions of 1837
    • The resettlement of the Canadian Northwest at the end of the 19th century
    • The Quiet Revolution in Quebec. (Unit 1)
    • Changes to the Indian Act 1876 – 1968 leading to Bill C-31 1985
    • Idle No More Movement
DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING

In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the inquiry question.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities.  This forms the  “They do” section of the inquiry where students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations. Teachers work with students to clarify understandings.

For all these inquiries, teachers are encouraged to connect current events to the discussions and ideas being explored.

Inquiry

Why do we have the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Human Rights Codes, and our Constitution?

  • How do these documents influence Canadian beliefs?
  • Are core Canadian beliefs possible in a multicultural society?

Students will:

  • Examine the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Human Rights Legislation, federally and provincially, and the Canadian Constitution.
  • Identify
    • core beliefs of document
    • the history behind each document
    • the impact of the document
  • Gain insight into Canadian Indigenous and Treaty rights by:
    • Identifying the common elements of Indigenous knowledge and philosophy that provided the basis for Indigenous and Treaty rights.
    • Exploring the factors of diversity and the impact of Canada’s expansionism of the 1800’s that impacted the interpretation of Canadian Indigenous and Treaty rights.
    • Comment on the changes in Canada’s relationship with First Peoples during these time periods.
      • Alliance 1600 – 1814
      • Marginalization 1763 – 1923
      • Wardship 1868 – 1969
      • Move toward Self-Governance 1969 – present
      • Truth and Reconciliation Commission
    • Examine Canada’s Multicultural policy
      • What has been the impact of Canadian multicultural policies like the Temporary Foreign Worker Program on Canadians?
      • What impact have programs like this had on Canadian beliefs?

APPLY AND EXTEND KNOWLEDGE

This section includes ideas to extend the inquiry or apply concepts explored. This section may also include additional reflective questions to promote student connection to the topic.  This forms the “You do” section – extend thinking beyond the classroom discussions and inquiry experiences.  Pose additional reflective questions that have been raised to encourage critical and creative thinking.

There are many websites that contain current information on outstanding justice issues.  Students could do some research to find an area of interest to them.  (See Section C for more ideas.)

Teachers are encouraged to use the Historical Thinking Concepts constructs in exploring any of the inquiries.

  • Consider which responsibilities individuals and groups collectively assume for each other.
    • What is needed to act on that responsibility?

Identify some current social, social justice, national justice issues in which students are interested.

  • What is the current status and impacts of the issues?
  • What is the history of resolution for the issue?
  • What themes are surfacing in the history of resolution?
  • What ideology is reflected in the resolution?
  • What suggestions do student have as to how they would redress/ try to solve the issue?

When thinking about multiculturalism and raising awareness of the perceptions of different cultures and the effects of inequities, background reading and prior discussion may be needed to prepare the class and some teachers for discussion about privilege, self-awareness, culture, racism, etc.  Two websites that provide useful information are:

See also Part C Resources for additional supports

EVIDENCE OF LEARNING

This section suggests ways in which students may demonstrate their understanding.  Ideal demonstrations will be in authentic performance tasks.  Citizenship studies may have its own smaller assessment piece or be compiled to support one larger performance task assessment.  Assessment pieces vary, but should allow students to demonstrate their understanding in a variety of ways.

Have students use the following prompts to connect to and answer any of the essential questions, the enduring understandings, or the inquiry questions to demonstrate their evidence of learning.

  • What do you think now about…?
  • What has caused your thinking to change?
  • What evidence supports your thinking?
  • Why is this information important to know?
  • How will you use this information?

Inquiry

What does it mean to be an engaged Canadian citizen?

  • What beliefs do engaged citizens share?
  • Whose worldviews make up Canadian worldview?

Inquiry

Why do we have the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Human Rights Codes, and our Constitution?

  • How do those documents influence Canadian beliefs?
  • Are core Canadian beliefs possible in a multicultural society?

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • What are the benefits and limitations of ideology in guiding beliefs and behavior?
    • How are a country’s values and beliefs reflected in their approaches to conflict resolution?
  • How are an individual’s values and beliefs reflected in their approaches to conflict resolution?
    • What are Canada’s issues of conflict nationally and internationally?
    • What is Canada’s record in conflict resolution, nationally and internationally?
  • How does ideology influence our view of social justice?
    • What social justice issues currently impact Canadian society?
    • What is the relationship between ideology and action on these issues?
  • How does a society structure itself to find a balance between the rights of opposing constructs, i.e. minorities and majorities; regions and the nation; individual rights and collective rights; and, what factors influence the finding of this balance?
    • How are Canadian views of social justice reflected in our policies and documents that address the issues above?
    • How well did Canada do?
  • How does society achieve a balance between the responsibilities of citizens to society and society’s responsibilities to its citizens?
    • What events have had an impact on Canada’s perspectives of citizenship rights and responsibilities?
    • What responsibility do we as citizens have to our neighbours?
    • What responsibility does Canada have to the global community?
  • Has Canadian society been organized to reflect national values and beliefs?
    • Whose worldviews are represented in our citizenship behaviours /agreements, locally, nationally and globally?
    • What historical influences are evident in our current citizenship behaviours/ agreements, nationally, and globally?

Enduring Understandings

  • Injustices of today have roots in the past.
  • Canadian society is challenged to manage the co-existence of diverse worldviews.
  • Canadian citizens work to achieve a balance between rights and responsibilities through learning and action.
  • Canadian society has inequities and elimination of these is beneficial for all Canadians.
  • For each individual, becoming aware of racism in Canadian society is an evolutionary process and a precursor to change.
  • As citizens of local, national, and global communities, Canadians are conscious, self-reflective, and critical of their own beliefs and actions and seek to make positive change.
  • Citizens show flexibility of mind.

STUDENT CITIZENSHIP JOURNAL OPPORTUNITIES

Students will continue to explore their understanding of their role as a Canadian citizen and reflect on their perspective in an Ongoing Journal.  Look for opportunities to include video journaling or blogging.  Art should be included throughout the journal; some to accompany the journal entry and some that are random drawings and sketching. The journal entries are a record of the student’s thinking and chronicle the student’s changing views of citizenship.

Students are keeping a Citizenship Journal to reflect upon their developing views of citizenship.  This section provides prompts for student journals.  Students are invited to choose one that interests them or propose their own. Students can also respond to any of the essential questions.

Students are encouraged to respond using a variety of genres.

  • How strong is Canada’s democracy?
  • When you come of voting age, will you choose to vote? How did you reach your decision?
  • What was your greatest surprise in learning that occurred in the inquiries? Why?
  • Is your Canadian citizenship important to you? Explain your thinking.

Part C

Inquiry Resources

All websites were accessed November 2017

Cross Curricular Connections

The Saskatchewan Ministry of Education English Language Arts Curriculum states:

“If students are to become lifelong learners, develop a sense of self and connection to others, and become engaged citizens and achieve the Cross-curricular Competencies and the outcomes for English language arts, students require meaningful, authentic contexts for learning. Students need many opportunities to explore questions and concerns about themselves and about the world.”

The Concentus Citizenship Education Resources provide teachers with a framework of inquires with which to further students’ explorations of their roles and responsibilities as Canadian citizens, in authentic contexts.  These inquiries are directly connected to Social Sciences (History, Native Studies, Social Studies) foundational outcomes and the broad goals of learning identified above.  Specific connections to English Language Arts and Treaty Education are identified and suggested as starting points for teachers.

 

English Language Arts A30

Unit I – Canadian Perspectives: Distinct and Rich (Define the Individual, Negotiate the Community; Celebrate the Glorious, Acknowledge the Scandalous; Shift Centres, Blur Margins; Understand Beliefs, Initiate Action)

Themes/Context and Essential Questions

Define the Individual, Negotiate the Community

  • What does it mean to be Canadian and what is our Canadian identity?
  • Is being Canadian an individual or a community enterprise? What is the relationship between the individual and the community in Canada? How do individuals shape a community and the country, and how do the community and the country shape their citizens?
  • What contributions have Canadian individuals (e.g., famous and not-so-famous; First Nations, Métis, Inuit, long-time Canadians, new Canadians) made to the character of the Canadian community? To the global community?
  • How do Canadians navigate their local, regional, national, and global communities?

Celebrate the Glorious, Acknowledge the Scandalous

  • Why is it important for Canadians to recognize, historically and currently, both the glorious and the scandalous aspects of Canadian life?
  • How is glory defined and celebrated by Canadians? How is scandal defined and responded to by Canadians?
  • What Canadian scandals have longevity and why? Why is acknowledgment of the scandalous difficult yet necessary?
  • What is the basis of Canadian national pride? What is Canada’s international image in the global community?

Shift Centres, Blur Margins

  • How can we ensure that all perspectives and voices in Canada are seen, listened to, read, and celebrated?
  • What perspectives have been dominant or privileged in Canada? Why?
  • What perspectives have been and are marginalized? Why?
  • Why is equitable representation of voices and all perspectives important for every Canadian and for Canada?
  • How are the multicultural perspectives in Canada captured and represented by its artists and authors?

Understand Beliefs, Initiate Action

  • How can Canadians and their communities with varying and divergent beliefs act ethically, cooperatively, and respectfully?
  • How can the individual or collective beliefs of Canadians influence Canada’s actions?
  • Do Canadian citizens share collective principles that define them as Canadians?
  • How do Canadians facilitate understanding of one another’s beliefs?

Unit II: Canadian Perspectives: Diverse and Dynamic* (Natural and Constructed; Psychological and Physical; Historical and Contemporary; Personal and Societal)

Natural and Constructed

  • What are Canadians’ attitudes to and concerns about the natural and constructed (e.g., political, virtual, linguistic) landscapes in which they live, and how do they express and act upon those attitudes and concerns?
  • How have Canada’s natural and constructed landscapes influenced Canadians?
  • How have natural and constructed landscapes deeply influenced Canadian artists, speakers, and authors and their texts?
  • How has your region’s landscape been represented in Canadian texts–visual, oral, print, and multimedia? Why is it important to have one’s physical–natural and constructed–landscapes represented in the texts one encounters?

Psychological and Physical

  • How does Canada’s physical landscape influence Canadians’ relationships and interactions with self and each other?
  • How are the landscapes of mind and heart as important as the physical landscapes of Canada?
  • What is revealed about the psychological landscapes of Canadians in visual, oral, print, and multimedia texts?
  • How has the representation of the physical landscape changed throughout Canada’s history? What do the changes reveal about the Canadian psyche?

Historical and Contemporary

  • How have Canada’s historical landscapes influenced its contemporary landscapes?
  • What are similarities and differences between historical and contemporary landscapes? What factors account for these similarities and differences?
  • How have historical and contemporary First Nations, Métis, and Inuit landscapes shaped our national landscape? What landscapes do the First Nations, Métis, and Inuit peoples, authors, and artists present?
  • How do we honour the histories of the many peoples who live in Canada while we forge landscapes that are contemporary and emerging?

Personal and Societal

  • What is the relationship between the individual and the state in Canada?
  • What is the role of the state in Canada? Where does the ultimate power reside in Canada–in the individual or in the society?
  • What societal issues concern Canadians? How have societal issues changed over the course of our nationhood?
  • How do Canadians balance the personal landscape with the societal landscape? How do we balance self-preservation with concern for others?

English Language Arts B30

Unit I: The Search for Self* *(Sense of Self; Ideals; Joy and Inspiration; Doubt and Fear)

*International, including indigenous, texts only

Sense of Self

  • Who and what are we?
  • What does it mean to be a human being? What is human nature?
  • Do we see ourselves the same way that others see us? How does being the member of a particular group affect our identity and sense of self?
  • What is our purpose for being?

Ideals

  • Are there universal ideals for which we all strive?
  • How ought human beings to behave? Is desirable behaviour the same in all cultures? In all communities?
  • What is admirable? What is not so admirable? Does everyone agree?
  • Why do our actions sometimes fall short of our ideals?

Joy and Inspiration

  • What brings us joy and inspiration in life?
  • What do optimistic and pessimistic mean? How do they apply to one’s view of life?
  • What is the “good life”? Is it the same for everyone?
  • What is a happy life? What is the meaning and nature of happiness? Does happiness mean different things to different people? How might we achieve happiness in life? How might we find personal fulfillment?

Doubt and Fear

  • What doubts and fears do we have?
  • What special challenges do doubts and fears bring to an individual? What are ways of overcoming doubts and fears? How can having doubts and fears be an advantage?
  • How do people react to tragedy or loss in their lives? What strategies do people use to deal with tragedy and loss? How do people respond to or deal with despair? What are people’s sources of strength? How can strength and healing arise out of tragedy and loss?
  • Is it natural to feel anger and hatred sometimes? Why? How do we navigate and deal with those emotions?

English Language Arts B30

Unit II–The Social Experience (Dealing with Universal Issues; Ambition, Power, and the Common Good; Social Criticism; Addressing the Issues)

Dealing with Universal Issues

  • What is “truth” and what is “justice”?
  • How do we define “truth”? What are important truths in life? How do we find truth?
  • How do we tell right from wrong? What challenges result from varying views of “right” and “wrong”? What are the rights of all?
  • How do we define “justice”? Why is justice often hard to achieve? Is justice fair? Infallible? Why does justice sometimes “sting”? How do we remedy injustice? Are there situations in which it is more just to treat people differently than to treat them the same?

Ambition, Power, and the Common Good

  • What is the nature of ambition and power?
  • What gives a person status? Is status achieved the same way in all societies? Within a society? Why is status important?
  • How do ambition and power drive us? How do they challenge us? How do individuals acquire real and perceived power? How do people enact power? How are power and privilege aligned? How does lack of power or imbalance in power affect individuals, groups, and societies?
  • What is meant by “the common good”? Who decides what the common good is? Is the common good best for every individual in a society? How do we attend to the common good while respecting individual goals and values?

Social Criticism

  • What is social criticism?
  • What is the purpose of social criticism?
  • What is conformity? What is resistance? What is meant by “the status quo”? What is rebellion? Do different people define these differently? How are conformity, resistance, and rebellion manifested differently in different societies?
  • Why do some individuals or groups challenge the system while others abide by it? What is political protest? How do societies treat resistance? Is resistance risky? Why or why not?

Addressing the Issues

  • How can we make the world a better place?
  • Do all people tackle causes in their lifetimes? Why or why not? What causes might your generation undertake?
  • What do people do when faced with a decision between advancing a cause and doing what they believe is right?
  • Are there situations in which individuals might challenge authority? What are some responsible ways of challenging authority?

Treaty Education

  • TR12: Examine one’s position regarding the importance of the treaty relationship for the social, cultural and economic prosperity of all Saskatchewan and Canadian people.
  • SI12: Investigate the values and beliefs of self, family, community, and society in relation to the importance of honouring the Spirit and Intent of treaties.
  • HC12: Examine how treaties within contemporary society impact on individual’s lives.
  • TPP12: Represent personal understanding of the concept, We Are All Treaty People.

Further Investigation Suggestions

  • Examine Canada’s basis of governance – “Peace, Order and Good Government” and compare to the United States ideological statement that is the basis of governance – “Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness”
  • What beliefs are reflected in those statements?
  • How do they compare with one another?
  • Give examples of how each country reflects the differences in ideology,

i.e. gun control, Canada’s Peace-Keeping Forces, interaction with and treatment of Indigenous peoples.

  • What were the historical impacts that lead to those developments?
  • What has been the historical outcomes of these differences, nationally, and internationally?
  • Create an information brochure for new Canadians, develop a Canadian Citizenship Test that contains an inventory of essential elements of Canadian worldview
  • Can a nation of individuals share a common ideology?
  • Is there still a place for ideology in society?
  • How would a government free of ideology function?
  • How has ideology driven change in the world?

Glossary

The following definitions are found at: Vocabulary.com

“Text from Vocabulary.com, Copyright ©1998-2016 Thinkmap, Inc.  All rights reserved.”

Acculturation:

Acculturation is what happens when you live with French people for a while and start going “ooh la la” and eating snails. It means adopting the ways of a culture that isn’t yours.

Acculturation is related to the word culture. Culture comes from a Latin word meaning, basically, farming. Now it refers to basically anything that people create and teach each other — singing, dancing, TV. Obviously people in different parts of the world have different cultures, and when they come together, the result is often acculturation. Picture a French guy drinking Coke and wearing a baseball cap and you get the idea.

N:  the adoption of the behaviour patterns of the surrounding culture

N: the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure

N:  all the knowledge and values shared by a society

Racism is a system that encompasses economic, political, social, and cultural structures, actions, and beliefs that institutionalize and perpetuate an unequal distribution of privileges, resources and power between White people and people of Color. This system is historic, normalized, taken for granted, deeply embedded, and works to the benefit of whites and to the disadvantage of people of color (Hilliard, 1992). – retrieved from: https://robindiangelo.com/resources-2/

Other useful definitions of racism, discrimination, Visit http://reacttoracism.ca/what-is-racism/

CITIZENSHIP STUDIES LEVEL 30: LIFELONG LEARNING CITIZENS

Part A

Broad Area of Citizenship: Social Studies/History/Native Studies

Lifelong Learning citizens continuously strive to understand the dynamics of change and critically seek new information to make reasoned and unbiased decisions.  This area of Citizenship study develops skills, attitudes and knowledge.  Citizens develop a critical understanding of, actively explore and analyze events and the effects of decisions at multiple governance levels.

High School Students will identify and examine the effects of inequity and conflict using Canadian and world history as content and context.  They consider the impact of worldview in dealing with conflict and inequity (10); examine Canada’s reputation and role as a global citizen (20); and, consider the root causes of inequity and the challenges that multiple perspectives bring to resolving conflict (30).

Throughout the study, students engage in critical and dialectical thinking in order to ensure that multiple perspectives, consistent with Canadian Indigenous communities and Canada’s multicultural policy are considered.

Overview and Desired Results of Citizenship Study

Students identify and examine contemporary issues by examining Canadian history in content and context.  They consider the actions, attitudes, and events of the past that have led to the structure of contemporary Canadian society in particular Canada’s treatment of First Nations people.  Examination of historical events leads to the examination of the role of contemporary structure and worldview as contributing factors to current inequities.  Finally students explore the additional challenges and opportunities that a multicultural society offers to Canadian citizens in addressing and resolving differences.

30

  • Social Studies students will consider how evolving worldviews change our society (same sex marriage, assisted suicide, right to life, gender equality).
  • History students will examine the evolution of our perspectives toward political, economic and social equality.
  • Native Studies students will consider how current mechanisms influence approaches to resolution of inequity.

Enduring Understandings of Citizenship Study

Students will use this information to understand that:

  • Injustices of today have roots in the past.
  • Canadian society is challenged to manage the co-existence of diverse worldviews.
  • Canadian citizens work to achieve a balance between rights and responsibilities through learning and action.
  • Canadian society has inequities and elimination of these is beneficial for all Canadians.
  • For each individual, becoming aware of racism in Canadian society is an evolutionary process and a precursor to change.
  • As citizens of local, national, and global communities, Canadians are conscious, self-reflective, and critical of their own beliefs and actions and seek to make positive change.
  • Citizens show flexibility of mind.
  • Enduring understandings and questions stimulate thinking, guide the inquiry and are linked to outcomes.
  • These questions point to the “big ideas’ in the area of inquiry and should be considered and reconsidered as the inquiry progresses.
  • Deliberation of these understandings forms the evidence of learning at the end of study.

Knowledge and Skill Development

Students will explore to understand:

  • The backgrounds of various human rights and social justice issues;
  • Various forms of conflict and dispute resolution forums including a variety of negative examples of conflict resolution and their residual impact including: assimilation, annihilation, and segregation.

Students will:

  • Critically seek and evaluate new information.
  • Create a set of analytical filters through which students will assess and evaluate information.
  • Recognize information gaps and refine necessary skills to obtain information and make informed decisions.

Essential Questions

  • What does it mean to be a citizen?
  • Why is there conflict between worldviews?
  • What is required for conflicting worldviews to coexist?
  • What range of responses have citizens used throughout history to respond to conflicting worldviews?
  • How do engaged and respectful citizens respond to conflict in a modern democracy?
  • How does an ethical and democratic society define and pursue justice?
  • What issues and opportunities does Canada’s multi-cultural policy and affirmation of diversity create?

Essential Questions are open-ended questions that are continually revisited, encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study, form the evidence of understanding and frame the assessment at the end of the study.

Saskatchewan Curriculum Concept Connections

This section connects teachers and students to the concepts explored through Social Sciences Studies:  Social Studies, History, and Native Studies.  General outcomes/objectives are identified.  It is the opinion of the development committee that the outcomes incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore these outcomes/citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science area.

The order in which they are listed suggests a general idea of the learning plan to follow.

Students will:

  • Examine the impacts of differing worldviews on relevant social and historical issues;
  • Examine political and societal structures to understand the history behind their current organization and understand how they contribute to contemporary inequities;
  • Explore the current social issues that have an historical basis and continue to have an impact contemporary Canada;
  • Consider the issues that arise from discrepancies of power and authority, economic disparity, and power inequities and the political and societal structures that support ongoing inequity;
  • Trace the evolution of Canadian citizenship from the Canadian and global perspective; and,
  • Consider the impact of diversity from a variety of governance and cultural perspectives and continue to explore approaches to conflict resolution.

Students will:

  • develop and apply the principles of dialectical thinking, dialectical examination and moral testing through exploration of local, regional, national, and global interdependence matters;
  • critically seek and evaluate new information; and,
  • recognize information gaps and refine necessary skills to obtain information and make informed decisions.

Part B Learning Plan 30 – Native Studies, History, Social Studies

This section gives a brief overview of the students’ learning path, inquires students will be doing in class, and the various connections to larger concepts.

The citizenship inquiries incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science area.  

Teacher Note

Inquiries are identified and connections to Big Ideas are noted.  Teachers may begin with any inquiry or combine inquiries to use the approach that resonates best with their students.

Inquiry

Why do inequities still exist in Canada?

  • How do political structures and societal attitudes maintain the inequities of contemporary Canadian society?

Big Ideas Explored:

  • Social and historical issues impact the understanding of differing worldviews.
  • Discrepancies of power and authority exist and influence the outcomes of many issues including:
    • Globalization and Colonial Issues,
    • Minority rights (including gender issues, gay rights, racism),
    • economic disparities,
    • power inequalities.
  • Existing political and societal structures continue to support current inequities;
  • Inequities are set up and maintained because of our systems and the deeply ingrained practices of structural racism which include internalized and institutionalized racism; and,
  • The concepts of racism include:
    • Structural racism,
    • Institutional racism,
    • Internalized racism,
      • Inner dimension
      • Interpersonal dimension
      • Institutional dimension
      • Cultural dimension

Inquiry

Is Canada truly a multicultural society?

  • What are the opportunities and challenges of a multicultural society?

Big Ideas Explored:

  • There are opportunities and inequities that arise when trying to incorporate diverse multicultural perspectives.
  • Canada continues to explore the concept of difference as it relates to various aspects of society including: regional, cultural, political, and economic differences; and,
  • Conflict resolution strategies that are effective and create an atmosphere of respect for difference require examination of structures at multiple levels.

Questions to Guide Inquiry

Essential questions are posed here to frame the context for student thinking and have students begin thinking about the topic. Answers to essential questions establish a baseline regarding student understanding as they identify the basic knowledge that students have and give teachers an idea of what students will need to learn to explore these outcomes. The essential questions and inquiries incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore these citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science areas.  

Teacher Note

Essential questions and guiding questions are posed to support teachers as they facilitate students’ explorations of the inquiry.  Teachers are encouraged to adjust the wording, omit, or add questions as they choose.

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • Why is there conflict between worldviews?
    • What is the state of “multiculturalism in Canada? / How healthy / well received is the concept of multiculturalism in Canada?
  • What is required in order for conflicting worldviews peacefully coexist?
    • What processes does Canada have to facilitate peaceful co-existence of conflicting worldviews?
    • How effective are these processes? How would you improve them?
  • What range of responses have citizens used throughout history to respond to conflicting worldviews?
    • What are the change systems/structure internationally?
    • What is the level of accessibility to those systems?
    • What events have led to the changes in these systems?
  • How do engaged and respectful citizens respond to conflict in a modern democracy?
    • What are the “levers of change” that address conflict in Canada? How do you access those levers?
  • How does an ethical and democratic society pursue justice?
    • How do we evaluate the ethics and justice of a society?
    • What role do ethics play in conflict?
    • How do engaged and respectful citizens and nations respond to conflict in a fair and just way?
  • What issues and opportunities does Canada’s multicultural policy and affirmation of diversity create?
    • What is the relationship between diversity and:
      • socio-economic levels
      • opportunity
      • inequity
      • other
    • How is that relationship manifested across Canada?
      • Are their regional similarities? disparities?
      • Why do they exist?
    • What are the issues in trying to incorporate and respect multicultural perspectives?
    • What are the opportunities?

Surface student thinking in response to the prompts or guiding questions pose.  Chart or record student thinking for later reflection.

Essential questions are posted and discussed with students at the start of the exploration of study. These open-ended questions are continually revisited; encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study; form the evidence of understanding; and, frame the assessment at the end of the unit of study. Guiding questions are posed to support student thinking as they explore the answers to the larger overarching questions.  

Teachers may want to consider putting the questions into a “Before, During, After” chart to note the changes in students’ thinking as a result of the inquiries.

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section indicates ways to introduce the lesson by engaging students.

Suggestions are posed here to frame the context for student thinking and cause students to begin thinking about the topic.

Vocabulary is introduced and noted here. This section frames the “We do” portion of the lesson where teachers guide the initial structure of the inquiry.

Teacher Note

Citizenship challenges are ongoing.  Teachers are challenged to bring current issues into the classroom so that students can make citizenship connections. 

Inquiry

How do political structures and societal attitudes maintain the inequities of contemporary Canadian society?

What responsibility does the individual have to examine and question the political and societal structures of contemporary Canada?

“Washing one’s hands of the conflict between the powerful and the powerless means to side with the powerful, not to be neutral. ”Paulo Freire (Brazilian educator and philosopher)

“The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing.”Edmund Burke

“Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man’s character, give him power. “ Abraham Lincoln

  • What are the quotes saying about power, the use of power, and citizen responsibility?
  • What do the quotes have in common with one another?
  • What examples can students give to demonstrate the truthfulness of the quotes?
  • What themes are emerging in the student answers?
    • What kinds of power relationships are evident?
  • What do the themes say to the students?

Examine issues pertaining to discrepancies of power and authority, such as:

  • Globalization and Colonial Issues,
  • Minority rights (including gender issues, gay rights, racism),
  • economic disparities,
  • power inequities.

Identify:

  • Stakeholders and the issues from different perspectives (worldviews and beliefs).
  • What existing structures (social and historical) are helping to maintain the inequities?
  • What would have to change for solutions to work?
  • What role do students play in maintaining the inequities?
  • Scrutinize the evolution of Citizenship as it pertains to Canadian and World Issues.
    • How are Canadians viewed in the world?
    • How is Canadian citizenship viewed in the world?
    • How did Canada get to this position on the world stage?
    • How has Canada responded to global political and societal inequities?

Vocabulary

  • Globalization
  • Structural racism
  • Interpersonal racism
  • Internalized racism
  • Levers of change
DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING

This section is the core of the lesson.  It describes the main activity(ies) involved.  In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the essential questions.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities.  This forms the  “They do” section of the inquiry where students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations. Teachers work with students to clarify understandings.

Processes

  • Brainstorm with students to identify issues within the inquiry areas that they wish to research.

Impacts of Differing Worldviews

  • Universal Health Care
  • Environmental Management /Use
  • First Nations Self Governance
  • Treaty Land Entitlement
  • Honour Killings

Power and Authority

  • Minority Rights
  • Federal – Provincial Jurisdiction
  • Immigration issues
  • Unemployed and/or low socio-economic
  • other

Canada as a Global Citizen

  • Peace Keeping History
  • Kyoto Accord
  • G7/8 Summits
  • Work with students to identify a core set of questions that each group will answer so that themes can be found in the responses. Suggestions include:
  • Identify
    • Issues
    • history of current state
    • worldview perspectives that impact current state
    • impact on identified issue
    • Canada’s role in the issue
    • How are inequities being maintained?
      • What role does marginalization, racism, and privilege play in maintaining inequity?
      • Do the inequities and differences fall along cultural lines?

Throughout this study, it is critical that teachers help students to step back to see the big picture.

  • What themes are emerging?
  • What are the similarities and differences?
  • Why do students think this is so?
  • What are the connections to the enduring understandings?

The independence level of the class, will determine how much teacher direction is required to do this.

Continue to have students reflect on their initial thinking.

  • What changes are they finding after their research?
  • How has their thinking changed regarding the inquiry question?
  • What connections are they making to the Enduring Understandings?

Inquiry

What are the opportunities and challenges created by a multicultural society?

Think about… Talk about…

  • What is the student/classroom worldview? Is there a common worldview amongst the class?
  • Do Canadians have a singular worldview?
  • Is worldview impacted by multiculturalism?
  • How does multiculturalism affect students?
  • Are students challenged to adopt another worldview, cultural perspective? What supports do they need?

Think back to the issues previously researched.

  • Do any of the power or disparity inequities divide themselves according to:
    • regional,
    • cultural,
    • political, and
    • economic differences in Canadian society?
  • What themes are students finding?
  • What are the opportunities?
  • What are the challenges?
  • How well does Canada’s multicultural policy address these issues?

APPLY AND EXTEND KNOWLEDGE

This section includes ideas to extend the inquiry or apply concepts explored. This section may also include additional reflective questions to promote student connection to the topic.  This forms the “You do” section – extend thinking beyond the classroom discussions and inquiry experiences.  Pose additional reflective questions that have been raised to encourage critical and creative thinking.

  • What responsibility do we have to pursue greater equality in Canada?
  • Should respect for differing worldviews affect our pursuit of justice?
  • Do universal human rights exist?

EVIDENCE OF LEARNING

This section suggests ways in which students may demonstrate their understanding.  Ideal demonstrations will be in authentic performance tasks.  Each citizenship study may have its own smaller assessment piece or be compiled to support one larger performance task assessment.  Assessment pieces vary, but should allow students to demonstrate their understanding in a variety of ways.

Have students use the following prompts to make connections to or address any of the essential questions, the enduring understandings, or the inquiry questions to demonstrate their evidence of learning.

  • What do you think now about…?
  • What has caused your thinking to change?
  • What evidence supports your thinking?
  • Why is this information important to know?
  • How will you use this information?

Inquiry

Why do inequities still exist in Canada?

  • How do political structures and societal attitudes maintain the inequities of contemporary Canadian society?
  • What responsibility does the individual have to examine and question the political and societal structures of contemporary Canada?
  • What role can you, the student play in creating change?

Inquiry

Is Canada really a multicultural society?

  • What are the opportunities and challenges of a multicultural society?

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • Why is there conflict between worldviews?
    • What is the state of “multiculturalism in Canada? / How healthy / well received is the concept of multiculturalism in Canada?
  • What is required in order for conflicting worldviews peacefully coexist?
    • What processes does Canada have to facilitate peaceful co-existence of conflicting worldviews?
    • How effective are those processes? How would you improve them?
  • What range of responses have citizens used throughout history to respond to conflicting worldviews?
    • What are the change systems/structure internationally?
    • What is the level of accessibility to those systems?
    • What events have led to the changes in these systems?
  • How do engaged and respectful citizens respond to conflict in a modern democracy?
    • What are the “levers of change” that address conflict in Canada? How do you access those levers?
  • How does an ethical and democratic society pursue justice?
    • How do we evaluate the ethics and justice of a society?
    • What role do ethics play in conflict?
    • How do engaged and respectful citizens and nations respond to conflict in a fair and just way?
  • What issues and opportunities does Canada’s multicultural policy and affirmation of diversity create?

Enduring Understandings

  • Injustices of today have roots in the past.
  • Canadian society is challenged to manage the co-existence of diverse worldviews.
  • Canadian citizens work to achieve a balance between rights and responsibilities through learning and action.
  • Canadian society has inequities and elimination of these is beneficial for all Canadians.
  • For each individual, becoming aware of racism in Canadian society is an evolutionary process and a precursor to change.
  • As citizens of local, national, and global communities, Canadians are conscious, self-reflective, and critical of their own beliefs and actions and seek to make positive change.
  • Citizens show flexibility of mind.

STUDENT CITIZENSHIP JOURNAL OPPORTUNITIES

Students will continue to explore their understanding of their role as a Canadian citizen and reflect on their perspective in an Ongoing Journal.  Look for opportunities to video journal.  Art should be included throughout the journal; some to accompany the journal entry and some that are random drawings and sketching. The journal entries are a record of the student’s thinking and chronicle the student’s changing views of citizenship.

Students are keeping a Citizenship Journal to reflect upon their developing views of citizenship.  This section provides prompts for student journals.  Students are invited to choose one that interests them or propose their own. Students can also respond to any of the essential questions.

Students are encouraged to respond using a variety of genres.

  • What was your greatest surprise in learning that occurred in the inquiries? Why?
  • What side of the inequity continuum do you live your life? How does this make you feel? As a citizen, what do you want to do about it?
  • What have been the personal impacts of multiculturalism on your life? How does this affect you as a citizen?

Part C

Inquiry Resources

All websites were accessed November 2017

ROVER (Recommended Online Video Education Resources) is a video streaming service for Saskatchewan teachers and students in the PreK-12 education system. It is managed and maintained by the Saskatchewan Ministry of Education.

The ROVER service is video-on-demand which provides teachers and students with the convenience of immediate access to streamed, educational videos that support curriculum. ROVER videos are housed on a server located in a school or school division network so there are no bandwidth issues, resulting in better picture quality and continuous play of videos without pauses. The videos are intended for viewing on the streaming site and not for copying or downloading.

There are over 1000 videos on ROVER that can be accessed by teachers and students to enhance learning in the classroom. All the videos found on this site have been evaluated by educational professionals and recommended to support Saskatchewan’s K-12 curricula. The ROVER collection of videos continues to evolve as new videos are added annually and old videos expire.

Case Studies Resources

Possible Resources for Conflict Resolution Procedures:

Cross Curricular Connections

The Saskatchewan Ministry of Education English Language Arts Curriculum states:

“If students are to become lifelong learners, develop a sense of self and connection to others, and become engaged citizens and achieve the Cross-curricular Competencies and the outcomes for English language arts, students require meaningful, authentic contexts for learning. Students need many opportunities to explore questions and concerns about themselves and about the world.”

The Concentus Citizenship Education Resources provide teachers with a framework of inquires with which to further students’ explorations of their roles and responsibilities as Canadian citizens, in authentic contexts.  These inquires are directly connected to Social Sciences (History, Native Studies, Social Studies) foundational outcomes and the broad goals of learning identified above.  Specific connections to English Language Arts and Treaty Education are identified and suggested as starting points for teachers.

English Language Arts A30

Unit I – Canadian Perspectives: Distinct and Rich (Define the Individual, Negotiate the Community; Celebrate the Glorious, Acknowledge the Scandalous; Shift Centres, Blur Margins; Understand Beliefs, Initiate Action)

Themes/Context and Essential Questions

Define the Individual, Negotiate the Community

  • What does it mean to be Canadian and what is our Canadian identity?
  • Is being Canadian an individual or a community enterprise? What is the relationship between the individual and the community in Canada? How do individuals shape a community and the country, and how do the community and the country shape their citizens?
  • What contributions have Canadian individuals (e.g., famous and not-so-famous; First Nations, Métis, Inuit, long-time Canadians, new Canadians) made to the character of the Canadian community? To the global community?
  • How do Canadians navigate their local, regional, national, and global communities?

Celebrate the Glorious, Acknowledge the Scandalous

  • Why is it important for Canadians to recognize, historically and currently, both the glorious and the scandalous aspects of Canadian life?
  • How is glory defined and celebrated by Canadians? How is scandal defined and responded to by Canadians?
  • What Canadian scandals have longevity and why? Why is acknowledgment of the scandalous difficult yet necessary?
  • What is the basis of Canadian national pride? What is Canada’s international image in the global community?

Shift Centres, Blur Margins

  • How can we ensure that all perspectives and voices in Canada are seen, listened to, read, and celebrated?
  • What perspectives have been dominant or privileged in Canada? Why?
  • What perspectives have been and are marginalized? Why?
  • Why is equitable representation of voices and all perspectives important for every Canadian and for Canada?
  • How are the multicultural perspectives in Canada captured and represented by its artists and authors?

Understand Beliefs, Initiate Action

  • How can Canadians and their communities with varying and divergent beliefs act ethically, cooperatively, and respectfully?
  • How can the individual or collective beliefs of Canadians influence Canada’s actions?
  • Do Canadian citizens share collective principles that define them as Canadians?
  • How do Canadians facilitate understanding of one another’s beliefs?

Unit II: Canadian Perspectives: Diverse and Dynamic* (Natural and Constructed; Psychological and Physical; Historical and Contemporary; Personal and Societal)

Natural and Constructed

  • What are Canadians’ attitudes to and concerns about the natural and constructed (e.g., political, virtual, linguistic) landscapes in which they live, and how do they express and act upon those attitudes and concerns?
  • How have Canada’s natural and constructed landscapes influenced Canadians?
  • How have natural and constructed landscapes deeply influenced Canadian artists, speakers, and authors and their texts?
  • How has your region’s landscape been represented in Canadian texts–visual, oral, print, and multimedia? Why is it important to have one’s physical–natural and constructed–landscapes represented in the texts one encounters?

Psychological and Physical

  • How does Canada’s physical landscape influence Canadians’ relationships and interactions with self and each other?
  • How are the landscapes of mind and heart as important as the physical landscapes of Canada?
  • What is revealed about the psychological landscapes of Canadians in visual, oral, print, and multimedia texts?
  • How has the representation of the physical landscape changed throughout Canada’s history? What do the changes reveal about the Canadian psyche?

Historical and Contemporary

  • How have Canada’s historical landscapes influenced its contemporary landscapes?
  • What are similarities and differences between historical and contemporary landscapes? What factors account for these similarities and differences?
  • How have historical and contemporary First Nations, Métis, and Inuit landscapes shaped our national landscape? What landscapes do the First Nations, Métis, and Inuit peoples, authors, and artists present?
  • How do we honour the histories of the many peoples who live in Canada while we forge landscapes that are contemporary and emerging?

Personal and Societal

  • What is the relationship between the individual and the state in Canada?
  • What is the role of the state in Canada? Where does the ultimate power reside in Canada–in the individual or in the society?
  • What societal issues concern Canadians? How have societal issues changed over the course of our nationhood?
  • How do Canadians balance the personal landscape with the societal landscape? How do we balance self-preservation with concern for others?

English Language Arts B30

Unit I: The Search for Self* *(Sense of Self; Ideals; Joy and Inspiration; Doubt and Fear)

*International, including indigenous, texts only

Sense of Self

  • Who and what are we?
  • What does it mean to be a human being? What is human nature?
  • Do we see ourselves the same way that others see us? How does being the member of a particular group affect our identity and sense of self?
  • What is our purpose for being?

Ideals

  • Are there universal ideals for which we all strive?
  • How ought human beings to behave? Is desirable behaviour the same in all cultures? In all communities?
  • What is admirable? What is not so admirable? Does everyone agree?
  • Why do our actions sometimes fall short of our ideals?

Joy and Inspiration

  • What brings us joy and inspiration in life?
  • What do optimistic and pessimistic mean? How do they apply to one’s view of life?
  • What is the “good life”? Is it the same for everyone?
  • What is a happy life? What is the meaning and nature of happiness? Does happiness mean different things to different people? How might we achieve happiness in life? How might we find personal fulfillment?

Doubt and Fear

  • What doubts and fears do we have?
  • What special challenges do doubts and fears bring to an individual? What are ways of overcoming doubts and fears? How can having doubts and fears be an advantage?
  • How do people react to tragedy or loss in their lives? What strategies do people use to deal with tragedy and loss? How do people respond to or deal with despair? What are people’s sources of strength? How can strength and healing arise out of tragedy and loss?
  • Is it natural to feel anger and hatred sometimes? Why? How do we navigate and deal with those emotions?

English Language Arts B30

Unit II–The Social Experience (Dealing with Universal Issues; Ambition, Power, and the Common Good; Social Criticism; Addressing the Issues)

Dealing with Universal Issues

  • What is “truth” and what is “justice”?
  • How do we define “truth”? What are important truths in life? How do we find truth?
  • How do we tell right from wrong? What challenges result from varying views of “right” and “wrong”? What are the rights of all?
  • How do we define “justice”? Why is justice often hard to achieve? Is justice fair? Infallible? Why does justice sometimes “sting”? How do we remedy injustice? Are there situations in which it is more just to treat people differently than to treat them the same?

Ambition, Power, and the Common Good

  • What is the nature of ambition and power?
  • What gives a person status? Is status achieved the same way in all societies? Within a society? Why is status important?
  • How do ambition and power drive us? How do they challenge us? How do individuals acquire real and perceived power? How do people enact power? How are power and privilege aligned? How does lack of power or imbalance in power affect individuals, groups, and societies?
  • What is meant by “the common good”? Who decides what the common good is? Is the common good best for every individual in a society? How do we attend to the common good while respecting individual goals and values?

Social Criticism

  • What is social criticism?
  • What is the purpose of social criticism?
  • What is conformity? What is resistance? What is meant by “the status quo”? What is rebellion? Do different people define these differently? How are conformity, resistance, and rebellion manifested differently in different societies?
  • Why do some individuals or groups challenge the system while others abide by it? What is political protest? How do societies treat resistance? Is resistance risky? Why or why not?

Addressing the Issues

  • How can we make the world a better place?
  • Do all people tackle causes in their lifetimes? Why or why not? What causes might your generation undertake?
  • What do people do when faced with a decision between advancing a cause and doing what they believe is right?
  • Are there situations in which individuals might challenge authority? What are some responsible ways of challenging authority?

Treaty Education

  • TR12: Examine one’s position regarding the importance of the treaty relationship for the social, cultural and economic prosperity of all Saskatchewan and Canadian people.
  • SI12: Investigate the values and beliefs of self, family, community, and society in relation to the importance of honouring the Spirit and Intent of treaties.
  • HC12: Examine how treaties within contemporary society impact on individual’s lives.
  • TPP12: Represent personal understanding of the concept, We Are All Treaty People.

CITIZENSHIP STUDIES LEVEL 30: CITIZENS CONNECTED TO SELF, COMMUNITY, AND PLACE

Part A

Broad Area of Citizenship: Social Studies/History/Native Studies

“Diversity is a fundamental aspect of human interaction. Living together as members of society requires understanding and appreciation of human diversity and diverse perspectives.” (Social Studies 9 (2009) Ministry of Education)

Citizens connected to Self, Community, and Place value and demonstrate a commitment to understanding the connections between people, the societies they create, and the environment in which they live.   They strive to right inequities of social injustice.

Students begin by examining causes of injustice and the considerations that must occur when trying to redress wrongs (10).   They move to understanding the implications of injustice at the international level (20) and consider the additional complications of working with many countries with differing ideologies and political structures.  In the final year of study (30) students continue to examine the historical and contemporary issues that arise from injustice and the structures, societal, and political that perpetuate ongoing inequities, including accepting the status quo.

Overview and Desired Results of Citizenship Study

Students have been exploring the attributes of engaged citizenship and the importance and purpose of community stewardship.  They extend their study of social justice issues to explore the implications of engagement and non-engagement in citizenship; examine the causes of marginalization and the means by which society has tried to achieve inclusion; and, consider the factors that inhibit societal equality.  Students will reflect on how society and its institutions support or impede citizenship and the ability of citizens to redress injustices.

30

  • Social Studies students will consider the causes of marginalization and approaches to support and achieve inclusion and social justice.
  • Historical Studies students will consider the evolution of and the effectiveness of approaches of society in addressing social justice issues. (gender equity, racism, economic inequality)
  • Native Studies students will consider the causes of marginalization and approaches to support and achieve inclusion and social justice.

Enduring Understandings of Citizenship Study

Students will use this information to understand that:

  • Injustices of today have roots in the past.
  • Canadian society is challenged to manage the co-existence of diverse worldviews.
  • Canadian citizens work to achieve a balance between rights and responsibilities through learning and action.
  • Canadian society has inequities and elimination of these is beneficial for all Canadians.
  • For each individual, becoming aware of racism in Canadian society is an evolutionary process and a precursor to change.
  • As citizens of local, national, and global communities, Canadians are conscious, self-reflective, and critical of their own beliefs and actions and seek to make positive change.
  • Citizens show flexibility of mind.
  • Enduring understandings and questions stimulate thinking, guide the inquiry and are linked to outcomes.
  • These questions point to the “big ideas’ in the area of inquiry and should be considered and reconsidered as the inquiry progresses.
  • Deliberation of these understandings forms the evidence of learning at the end of study.

Knowledge and Skill Development

Students will know the:

  • Criteria to identify Social Justice Issues
  • Strategies to affect change
  • Systemic elements of injustice

Students will be able to:

  • Identify and analyze social justice issues
  • Compare and contrast strategies to address those issues
  • Investigate the underlying causes of social injustice

Essential Questions

  • What is social justice?
  • Why do injustices exist?
  • What responsibility do individuals have to address injustices in society? How could this be accomplished?
  • What responsibilities do governments have to address injustices in society? How can this be accomplished?

Essential Questions are open-ended questions that are continually revisited, encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study, form the evidence of understanding and frame the assessment at the end of the study.

Saskatchewan Curriculum Concept Connections

This section connects teachers and students to the concepts explored through Social Sciences Studies:  Social Studies, History, and Native Studies.  General outcomes/objectives are identified.  It is the opinion of the development committee that the outcomes incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore these outcomes/citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science areas.

Students will:

  • examine the importance and purpose of community stewardship and take action at provincial, national, and global levels;
  • explore the reasons for and implications of engagement and non-engagement as citizens;
  • examine the extent to which different sectors of the population feel that their interests and well-being are being enhanced and secured within the existing political structure and examine the factors that are creating the rich/poor divide;
  • examine the challenges of creating equity in society where socio-economic differences are increasing and reflect on the processes required to achieve change; and,
  • examine the role of government in addressing societal well-being.

Students will develop and apply the principles of dialectical thinking, dialectical examination and moral testing through exploration of local, regional, national, and global interdependence matters.

Part B Learning Plan 30 – History, Native Studies, Social Studies

This section gives a brief overview of the students’ learning path; inquires students will be researching; and, the various connections to larger concepts.

Inquiries are identified and connections to Big Ideas are noted.  Teachers may begin with any inquiry or combine inquiries to use the approach that resonates best with their students.

The citizenship inquiries incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science area.  

Inquiry

What happens if we do nothing?

  • What are the implications/consequences of engagement and non-engagement as citizens?

Big Ideas Explored:

  • Action and in-action are choices and there may be reasons for and consequences to each choice when dealing with citizenship issues; and,
  • There are means to reflect on your levels of action to measure and adjust your level of citizenship engagement.

Inquiry

What will you do to create positive change?

  • Who benefits from the inequities of society?

Big Ideas Explored:

  • There are challenges to creating equity in society where socio-economic differences are increasing;
  • Factors that create and continue to reinforce the rich/poor divide are deeply ingrained and require a will and strategy to address;
  • Cooperation is a strategy that has specific consequences and requires acceptance by members of the group; and,
  • Conflict resolution strategies that create an atmosphere of respect for difference are possible to create.

Teachers are encouraged to use the Historical Thinking Concepts constructs in exploring any of the inquiries.

Historical Thinking Connections 

Historical Significance: How do we decide what is important to learn about the past?

Primary Source Evidence: How do we know what we know about the past?

Cause and Consequence: Why do events happen and what are their impacts?

Historical Perspectives: How can we better understand the people of the past?
Ethical Dimension: How can history help us to live in the present?

Continuity and Change: How can we make sense of the complex flows of history?

Questions to Guide Inquiry

Essential questions are posed here to frame the context for student thinking and have students begin thinking about the topic. Answers to essential questions establish a baseline regarding student understanding as they identify the basic knowledge that students have and give teachers an idea of what students will need to learn to explore these outcomes. The essential questions and inquiries incorporate the three perspectives of Social Sciences through exploration of historical and contemporary issues, which in Canada’s case must include Indigenous perspectives.  Teachers may choose, however, to explore these citizenship considerations specifically through the lens of their respective social science areas.  

Teacher Note

Essential questions and guiding questions are posed to support teachers as they facilitate students’ exploration of the inquiry.  Teachers are encouraged to adjust the wording, omit, or add questions as they choose.

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • What is social justice?
    • Does everyone perceive social justice the same way?
    • What are the factors that impact the perceptions of social justice issues?
  • What can be done about injustice?
    • What are the challenges of creating equity in society?
    • How does the increasing socio-economic divide contribute to the challenges?
    • What are the factors that create the rich/poor divide and how do we address it?
  • Why do injustices exist?
    • What makes us/society likely to resist change?
    • What types of groups are resistant to change?
    • What do these groups have in common?
    • How would you go about changing the mindset and practices of those groups?
  • What responsibility do individuals have to address injustices in society?
    • What is injustice? How do we know it is injustice?
    • Why do injustices exist in free and democratic societies?
    • What can be done about injustice, and how do we decide which injustice to address?
    • How can engaged citizens affect positive change?
    • What impact does cooperation create in trying to address injustice and create change?

Surface additional questions that students have.

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section introduces the concepts and helps teachers gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and allow students to think about and talk about.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific and incidental teaching required to explore these outcomes. Vocabulary is introduced and noted here.  This section frames the “We do” portion of the lesson where teachers guide the initial structure of the inquiry.

Teacher Note

  • Surface student thinking in response to the prompts or hook questions posed.
  • Add questions from students; adjust the wording of questions as needed.
  • Chart student thinking for later reflection.

Surface student thinking in response to the prompts or guiding questions posed below.  Chart or record their thinking for later reflection.

Examining Levels of Citizenship Engagement

This inquiry examines the levels of engagement in citizenship issues and considers why people make the choices they do to become engaged and how they become involved.  Students also think about the consequences of non-engagement / involvement and consider the processes required to effect change when there is strong support to maintain the status quo.  

Ideas are suggested here to support teachers new to the inquiry process.  Teachers are invited to use their professional judgment to make adjustments to all suggestions to support student learning.  Look for opportunities to connect current citizenship issues to the themes and questions posed.

Inquiry

What happens if we do nothing?

  • What are the implications/consequences of engagement and non-engagement as citizens?
  • Why would someone choose to “do nothing”?
  • Is inaction an action? How does one/society address inaction?
  • How involved / engaged should citizens be?
  • What are indicators of engagement?
    • e. Voting, volunteering, advocacy, lobbying, social media initiatives
    • How does one / a citizen become involved in issues?
    • How do you decide what is important? Worth your time?

See Further Investigation section Part C for additional ideas to explore voting, volunteering and advocacy.

  • What are you involved in?
  • How and why did students become involved?
  • What might you like to become involved with?

Make a plan for engagement in any citizenship issue for the year and monitor your involvement in the issue throughout the year.

Look for patterns in the activities of student involvement and interest.  Develop a class profile.

DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING

In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the inquiry question.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities.  This forms the  “They do” section of the inquiry where students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations. Teachers work with students to clarify understandings.

Surface student thinking in response to the prompts or guiding questions posed.  Chart or record their thinking for later reflection.  Teachers may want to put student responses into a “Before, During, After” chart to note the changes in students’ thinking as a result of the inquiries.

Teacher Note

Citizenship challenges are ongoing.  Teachers are challenged to bring current issues into the classroom so that students can make citizenship connections.

Gauging Citizenship Involvement / engagement

  • Does level of engagement indicate the health of a democracy? Explain your thinking.
  • Does voting reflect engagement? Explain your thinking.
  • What means of measuring civic engagement exist?
  • What are the levers of power and strategies for making change? How does one activate those?
  • Brainstorm responses with students and chart thinking.

As students consider how citizenship engagement is measured, they can explore

  • Review the areas of involvement identified in Appendix C: Domains of Civic Involvement
    • In what areas are students involved?
    • Where might they like to extend their involvement?
  • What do students see as the merits and detractors of measurement systems?
  • What kind of measurement would students develop?

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

What is social justice?

  • Does everyone perceive social justice the same way?
  • What are the factors that impact the perceptions of social justice issues?

What can be done about injustice?

  • What are the challenges of creating equity in society?
  • How does the increasing socio-economic divide contribute to the challenges?
  • What are the factors that create the rich/poor divide and how do we address it?

Why do injustices exist?

  • What makes us/society likely to resist change?
  • What types of groups are resistant to change?
  • What do these groups have in common?
  • How would you go about changing the mindset and practices of those groups?

What responsibility do individuals have to address injustices in society?

  • What is injustice? How do we know it is injustice?
  • Why do injustices exist in free and democratic societies?
  • What can be done about injustice, and how do we decide which injustice to address?
  • How can engaged citizens affect positive change?
  • What impact does cooperation create in trying to address injustice and create change?

Examining Canada’s history of Social Justice

This part of the inquiry has students research the history of social justice issues in Canada to find the themes that are raised in the essential and guiding questions.

Have students identify some issues they would like to research or choose from the suggestions.

What has been the history of:

  • Decision-making in Canada
  • Voting in Canada
  • Development of Canada’s Multi-cultural policy
  • Francophone struggle for recognition
  • Immigration policies in Canada
  • Indigenous Rights
  • First Nations struggle:
    • For self governance
    • To have treaty responsibilities fulfilled in education, health, clean water, child welfare, housing, etc.
  • Minimum wage levels in Canada
  • Development of Canadian Wheat Board
  • Welfare, Social Assistance programs
  • Other

Within issues have students identify:

  • Issue or problem
    • History
  • Stakeholders involved
    • Stakeholders’ perspectives
  • Decision Making process
    • Primary decision-makers
    • Who was left out of the decision-making process
  • Outcomes and Impacts
    • Historic
    • Contemporary
  • Systems Analysis
    • What structures exist within the system to maintain inequities?
    • Who is benefiting from the inequities?
  • What resolution do you propose?
    • Strategies required

Inquiry

What will you do to create positive change?

  • Who benefits from the inequities of society?
  • What are the challenges of creating equity in society where socio-economic differences are increasing;
    • How is the health of a society measured?
    • What conditions exist to maintain economic inequality?
    • What is required to reach resolution?
    • What conditions are required to address economic inequality?
  • Examine the factors that are creating the rich/poor divide and consider means of addressing inequities; and,
    • What makes us/society likely to resist change?
    • What types of groups are resistant to change?
    • What do these groups have in common?
  • Consider the impact of cooperation.
    • How does competition support society?
      • What are the examples of such in history, contemporary society?
    • How does cooperation support society?
      • What are the examples of such in history, contemporary society?

Surface and record additional student questions.

  • What issues are you involved with?
  • Why are they important to you?
  • What are the issues that you feel should be changed?

Identify the issues and develop a plan for change.

APPLY AND EXTEND KNOWLEDGE

This section includes ideas to “wrap up” the inquiry or apply concepts explored. This section may also include additional reflective questions to promote student connection to the topic.  This forms the “You do” section – extend thinking beyond the classroom discussions and inquiry experiences.  Pose additional reflective questions that have been raised to encourage critical and creative thinking.  

Choose one of the following areas for further exploration

  • Can all social justice issues be resolved satisfactorily?
    • Choose a social justice issue and trace its history in Canada and abroad. Identify:
      • History
      • Stakeholders
      • Issues
      • Processes to involve all stakeholders
      • Resolution
      • Your evaluation of the effectiveness of the resolution
      • Recommended Next Steps
    • What is the history of addressing issues concerning the First Peoples of Canada – First Nations, Inuit, Métis?
    • What is Canada’s history in allowing immigrants into this country?
  • Do citizens have an obligation to get involved in all social justice issues? What would be the criteria?
  • What obligations does the Federal government and Opposition parties have to adopt the recommendations of the Truth and Reconciliation commission?
    • Identify the issues for and against?
    • How would you counsel the government? Opposition parties?

EVIDENCE OF LEARNING

This section suggests ways in which students may demonstrate their understanding.  Ideal demonstrations will be in authentic performance tasks.  Each citizenship study may have its own smaller assessment piece or be compiled to support one larger performance task assessment.  Assessment pieces vary, but should allow students to demonstrate their understanding in a variety of ways.

Have students use the following prompts to answer or make connections to any of the essential questions, the enduring understandings, or the inquiry questions to demonstrate their evidence of learning.

  • What do you think now about…?
  • What has caused your thinking to change?
  • What evidence supports your thinking?
  • Why is this information important to know?
  • How will you use this information?

Inquiry

What happens if we do nothing?

  • What are the implications/consequences of engagement and non-engagement as citizens?

Inquiry

What will you do to create positive change?

  • Who benefits from the inequities of society?

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • What is social justice?
    • Does everyone perceive social justice the same way?
    • What are the factors that impact the perceptions of social justice issues?
  • What can be done about injustice?
    • What are the challenges of creating equity in society?
    • How does the increasing socio-economic divide contribute to the challenges?
    • What are the factors that create the rich/poor divide and how do we address it?
  • Why do injustices exist?
    • What makes us/society likely to resist change?
    • What types of groups are resistant to change?
    • What do these groups have in common?
    • How would you go about changing the mindset and practices of those groups?
  • What responsibility do individuals have to address injustices in society?
    • What is injustice? How do we know it is injustice?
    • Why do injustices exist in free and democratic societies?
    • What can be done about injustice, and how do we decide which injustice to address?
    • How can engaged citizens affect positive change?
    • What impact does cooperation create in trying to address injustice and create change?

Enduring Understandings

  • Injustices of today have roots in the past.
  • Canadian society is challenged to manage the co-existence of diverse worldviews.
  • Canadian citizens work to achieve a balance between rights and responsibilities through learning and action.
  • Canadian society has inequities and elimination of these is beneficial for all Canadians.
  • For each individual, becoming aware of racism in Canadian society is an evolutionary process and a precursor to change.
  • As citizens of local, national, and global communities, Canadians are conscious, self-reflective, and critical of their own beliefs and actions and seek to make positive change.
  • Citizens show flexibility of mind.

STUDENT CITIZENSHIP JOURNAL OPPORTUNITIES

Students will continue to explore their understanding of their role as a Canadian citizen and reflect on their perspective in an Ongoing Journal. Look for opportunities to include video journaling.  Art should be included throughout the journal; some to accompany the journal entry and some that are random drawings and sketching. The journal entries are a record of the student’s thinking and chronicle the student’s changing views of citizenship.

Students are keeping a Citizenship Journal to reflect upon their developing views of citizenship.  This section provides prompts for student journals.  Students are invited to choose one that interests them or propose their own. Students can also respond to any of the essential questions.

Students are encouraged to respond using a variety of genres.

  • What was your greatest surprise in learning that occurred in the inquiries? Why?
  • Think of a social justice situation or area you are passionate about. What would be the conditions for social justice to be achieved? What can you do to make this happen?  How would this impact you?
  • How strong of a citizen connected to self, community, and place are you? Rate yourself using a scale of 1 – poor – 5 – very strong. Explain your thinking.  What would it take for you to move 1 point higher on the scale?   Are you willing to do that?  Explain your thinking.

Part C

Inquiry Resources

Cross Curricular Connections

The Saskatchewan Ministry of Education English Language Arts Curriculum states:

“If students are to become lifelong learners, develop a sense of self and connection to others, and become engaged citizens and achieve the Cross-curricular Competencies and the outcomes for English language arts, students require meaningful, authentic contexts for learning. Students need many opportunities to explore questions and concerns about themselves and about the world.”

The Concentus Citizenship Education Resources provide teachers with a framework of inquires with which to further students’ explorations of their roles and responsibilities as Canadian citizens, in authentic contexts.  These inquiries are directly connected to Social Sciences (History, Native Studies, Social Studies) foundational outcomes and the broad goals of learning identified above.  Specific connections to English Language Arts and Treaty Education are identified and suggested as starting points for teachers.

English Language Arts A30

Unit I – Canadian Perspectives: Distinct and Rich (Define the Individual, Negotiate the Community; Celebrate the Glorious, Acknowledge the Scandalous; Shift Centres, Blur Margins; Understand Beliefs, Initiate Action)

Themes/Context and Essential Questions

Define the Individual, Negotiate the Community

  • What does it mean to be Canadian and what is our Canadian identity?
  • Is being Canadian an individual or a community enterprise? What is the relationship between the individual and the community in Canada? How do individuals shape a community and the country, and how do the community and the country shape their citizens?
  • What contributions have Canadian individuals (e.g., famous and not-so-famous; First Nations, Métis, Inuit, long-time Canadians, new Canadians) made to the character of the Canadian community? To the global community?
  • How do Canadians navigate their local, regional, national, and global communities?

Celebrate the Glorious, Acknowledge the Scandalous

  • Why is it important for Canadians to recognize, historically and currently, both the glorious and the scandalous aspects of Canadian life?
  • How is glory defined and celebrated by Canadians? How is scandal defined and responded to by Canadians?
  • What Canadian scandals have longevity and why? Why is acknowledgment of the scandalous difficult yet necessary?
  • What is the basis of Canadian national pride? What is Canada’s international image in the global community?

Shift Centres, Blur Margins

  • How can we ensure that all perspectives and voices in Canada are seen, listened to, read, and celebrated?
  • What perspectives have been dominant or privileged in Canada? Why?
  • What perspectives have been and are marginalized? Why?
  • Why is equitable representation of voices and all perspectives important for every Canadian and for Canada?
  • How are the multicultural perspectives in Canada captured and represented by its artists and authors?

Understand Beliefs, Initiate Action

  • How can Canadians and their communities with varying and divergent beliefs act ethically, cooperatively, and respectfully?
  • How can the individual or collective beliefs of Canadians influence Canada’s actions?
  • Do Canadian citizens share collective principles that define them as Canadians?
  • How do Canadians facilitate understanding of one another’s beliefs?

Unit II: Canadian Perspectives: Diverse and Dynamic* (Natural and Constructed; Psychological and Physical; Historical and Contemporary; Personal and Societal)

Natural and Constructed

  • What are Canadians’ attitudes to and concerns about the natural and constructed (e.g., political, virtual, linguistic) landscapes in which they live, and how do they express and act upon those attitudes and concerns?
  • How have Canada’s natural and constructed landscapes influenced Canadians?
  • How have natural and constructed landscapes deeply influenced Canadian artists, speakers, and authors and their texts?
  • How has your region’s landscape been represented in Canadian texts–visual, oral, print, and multimedia? Why is it important to have one’s physical–natural and constructed–landscapes represented in the texts one encounters?

Psychological and Physical

  • How does Canada’s physical landscape influence Canadians’ relationships and interactions with self and each other?
  • How are the landscapes of mind and heart as important as the physical landscapes of Canada?
  • What is revealed about the psychological landscapes of Canadians in visual, oral, print, and multimedia texts?
  • How has the representation of the physical landscape changed throughout Canada’s history? What do the changes reveal about the Canadian psyche?

Historical and Contemporary

  • How have Canada’s historical landscapes influenced its contemporary landscapes?
  • What are similarities and differences between historical and contemporary landscapes? What factors account for these similarities and differences?
  • How have historical and contemporary First Nations, Métis, and Inuit landscapes shaped our national landscape? What landscapes do the First Nations, Métis, and Inuit peoples, authors, and artists present?
  • How do we honour the histories of the many peoples who live in Canada while we forge landscapes that are contemporary and emerging?

Personal and Societal

  • What is the relationship between the individual and the state in Canada?
  • What is the role of the state in Canada? Where does the ultimate power reside in Canada–in the individual or in the society?
  • What societal issues concern Canadians? How have societal issues changed over the course of our nationhood?
  • How do Canadians balance the personal landscape with the societal landscape? How do we balance self-preservation with concern for others?

English Language Arts B30

Unit I: The Search for Self* *(Sense of Self; Ideals; Joy and Inspiration; Doubt and Fear)

*International, including indigenous, texts only

Sense of Self

  • Who and what are we?
  • What does it mean to be a human being? What is human nature?
  • Do we see ourselves the same way that others see us? How does being the member of a particular group affect our identity and sense of self?
  • What is our purpose for being?

Ideals

  • Are there universal ideals for which we all strive?
  • How ought human beings to behave? Is desirable behaviour the same in all cultures? In all communities?
  • What is admirable? What is not so admirable? Does everyone agree?
  • Why do our actions sometimes fall short of our ideals?

Joy and Inspiration

  • What brings us joy and inspiration in life?
  • What do optimistic and pessimistic mean? How do they apply to one’s view of life?
  • What is the “good life”? Is it the same for everyone?
  • What is a happy life? What is the meaning and nature of happiness? Does happiness mean different things to different people? How might we achieve happiness in life? How might we find personal fulfillment?

Doubt and Fear

  • What doubts and fears do we have?
  • What special challenges do doubts and fears bring to an individual? What are ways of overcoming doubts and fears? How can having doubts and fears be an advantage?
  • How do people react to tragedy or loss in their lives? What strategies do people use to deal with tragedy and loss? How do people respond to or deal with despair? What are people’s sources of strength? How can strength and healing arise out of tragedy and loss?
  • Is it natural to feel anger and hatred sometimes? Why? How do we navigate and deal with those emotions?

English Language Arts B30

Unit II–The Social Experience (Dealing with Universal Issues; Ambition, Power, and the Common Good; Social Criticism; Addressing the Issues)

Dealing with Universal Issues

  • What is “truth” and what is “justice”?
  • How do we define “truth”? What are important truths in life? How do we find truth?
  • How do we tell right from wrong? What challenges result from varying views of “right” and “wrong”? What are the rights of all?
  • How do we define “justice”? Why is justice often hard to achieve? Is justice fair? Infallible? Why does justice sometimes “sting”? How do we remedy injustice? Are there situations in which it is more just to treat people differently than to treat them the same?

Ambition, Power, and the Common Good

  • What is the nature of ambition and power?
  • What gives a person status? Is status achieved the same way in all societies? Within a society? Why is status important?
  • How do ambition and power drive us? How do they challenge us? How do individuals acquire real and perceived power? How do people enact power? How are power and privilege aligned? How does lack of power or imbalance in power affect individuals, groups, and societies?
  • What is meant by “the common good”? Who decides what the common good is? Is the common good best for every individual in a society? How do we attend to the common good while respecting individual goals and values?

Social Criticism

  • What is social criticism?
  • What is the purpose of social criticism?
  • What is conformity? What is resistance? What is meant by “the status quo”? What is rebellion? Do different people define these differently? How are conformity, resistance, and rebellion manifested differently in different societies?
  • Why do some individuals or groups challenge the system while others abide by it? What is political protest? How do societies treat resistance? Is resistance risky? Why or why not?

Addressing the Issues

  • How can we make the world a better place?
  • Do all people tackle causes in their lifetimes? Why or why not? What causes might your generation undertake?
  • What do people do when faced with a decision between advancing a cause and doing what they believe is right?
  • Are there situations in which individuals might challenge authority? What are some responsible ways of challenging authority?

Treaty Education

  • TR12: Examine one’s position regarding the importance of the treaty relationship for the social, cultural and economic prosperity of all Saskatchewan and Canadian people.
  • SI12: Investigate the values and beliefs of self, family, community, and society in relation to the importance of honouring the Spirit and Intent of treaties.
  • HC12: Examine how treaties within contemporary society impact on individual’s lives.
  • TPP12: Represent personal understanding of the concept, We Are All Treaty People.

Further Investigation Suggestions

  • Becoming involved in Canada
    • How can people become involved in their country?
    • Why might some people choose not to become involved?
    • Why might some people feel they are not included?
    • What are you involved in? Community, province, country?
  • Voting

Appendix

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