GRADE 7 RESOURCES

The Intentional & Direct Teaching of Essential Citizenship Competencies

GRADE 7 CITIZENSHIP STUDIES ENGAGED CITIZENS

Part A: Curricular Connections and Background

BROAD AREA OF CITIZENSHIP

Engaged Citizens question, critically examine, advocate, and defend rights and responsibilities of a democracy on a local, national, and global level.  They are beginning to understand the role that history played in the world they experience today. They are making sense of the different types of governance at local and national levels and the areas of responsibility connected to those governing bodies.  Students are continuing to understand issues and actions connected with diversity, rights and responsibilities, levels of governance and think about how rules and social customs can have different impacts on people.

OVERVIEW AND DESIRED RESULTS OF CITIZENSHIP STUDY

Students will:

  • Understand the different types of government locally, nationally and globally.
  • Examine elements of Canadian citizenship including the relationship between rights and responsibilities.
  • Begin to explore forms of governance other than democracies.
  • Consider the impact of historical and current events locally, nationally and globally.

Grade seven students are beginning to investigate and understand the various types of power and governance within their own country at the local, regional, provincial, national and global levels.  As the understanding of the levels of power that govern Canada develop, students compare and contrast those structures and processes with countries operating within Pacific Rim and circumpolar regions that do not operate as democracies.  This area of citizenship focuses on the student using critical thinking skills in order to better understand, the relationship between geography, resources, culture and historical events.

The inquiries offer students opportunities to use various types of maps to situate current issues in Canada and Pacific Rim countries. Knowledge of the geographic features, specific resources, population clusters and economic relationships will help the students to draw their own understandings and perspectives.

ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS OF CITIZENSHIP STUDY

A deep understanding of democracy is important to become an engaged citizen.

Students will use information to understand:

  • History and current events are understood through diverse historical perspectives.
  • Democracy requires discussion and consideration of alternate points of view in order to find a balance between individual perspectives.
  • Citizens value the needs of the collective common good and consider how their actions impact the collective well-being.
  • Canadian multi-cultural policies challenge citizenship tenets and require consideration of multiple perspectives.
  • Canada’s history includes First Nations, Métis, and Inuit governance and perspectives and each have contributed to Canadian identity.
  • Decision-making is a complex process with far-reaching impacts.
  • Engaged citizens strive to be knowledgeable, uphold their rights, and act on their responsibilities.

Inferences to make;

  • The democratic process involves discussion and consideration of alternate points of view in order to find the best solution for the greatest common good. Consequently, everyone has a right to be heard and understood. (i.e. individual perspectives on various issues)
  • A strong democratic system enhances the significance of all participants and works toward achieving the greatest common good.
  • Enduring understandings are the big ideas that stimulate thinking, guide the inquiry and are linked to outcomes.
  • Essential questions point to the “big ideas’ in the inquiry and should be considered and reconsidered as the inquiry progresses.
  • Answers to these questions form the evidence of learning at the end of study.

KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL DEVELOPMENT

Students will develop the ability to:

  • question,
  • critically examine,
  • consider another perspective,
  • consider the responsibilities that changing situations,
  • evoke/require,
  • advocate, and defend rights and responsibilities of a democracy on a local, national, and global level.

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS

  • Does democracy work? How could democracy be improved?
  • What is the relationship between rights and responsibilities?
  • How do my actions influence others? / How do the actions of others influence me?
  • What is the impact of affirming multiculturalism in a democracy?
Essential Questions are open-ended questions that are continually revisited, encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study, form the evidence of understanding and frame the assessment at the end of the study.

CURRICULUM OUTCOMES AND INDICATORS

Student friendly outcomes should be posted throughout the inquiry and continually referenced so the goals of the learning are clearly available to students.

Outcomes:

PA7.1

Compare the sources of power for individuals, nations, and regions in a selection of Pacific Rim and circumpolar countries.

Indicators:

  • Describe the source of power (resources, numbers, organization) and forms of power (force, authority, influence) used by individuals in a position of leadership in the local community or organization.
  • Analyze the sources of power, including organization, resources (technological, human, and military), and numbers, evidenced in the exercise of power by an individual, organization, or nation as described in a current events article.
  • Assess the sources of power held by the First Nations and the Europeans respectively in the negotiations of the treaty which governs the local area.
  • Identify examples of the use of co-operation balance and harmony as sources of power used to effect change in the local, provincial, national, or international community (e.g., service organizations, trade unions, First Nations and Métis organizations, co-operative movements, advocacy groups).
  • Analyze the sources of power of a national leader of a Pacific Rim or circumpolar country.

PA7.2

Investigate the structures and processes of democratic government in Canada.

Indicators:

  • Investigate the federal, provincial or territorial, or local election processes in Canada.
  • Chart the structures of Canadian government at the local, provincial, and national levels.
  • Survey the principles of democracy as defined by family, school, and community members, and synthesize into a definition of democracy.
  • Compare the responsibilities of municipal, provincial or territorial, and federal and First Nations governments in Canada.
  • Describe the roles of the elected representatives in the local (reeve, mayor, councillor), provincial or territorial (member of the legislative assembly), federal (member of parliament), First Nations (councillor, chief) system of government and Métis governance structures.

PA7.3

Compare the strengths and weaknesses of oligarchy, dictatorship and democracy as systems of government. 

Indicators:

  • Examine the systems of government of circumpolar or Pacific Rim countries which are not democracies (e.g., China, North Korea, Vietnam, Fiji).
  • Contrast the systems of government of the non-democracies in circumpolar and Pacific Rim countries with Canada’s system of government.
  • Identify the criteria by which countries are described as dictatorships, oligarchies, or democracies.

DR7.1

Analyze and use various types of maps (that provide differing perspectives and information for differing purposes) in order to situate current issues in Canada, and in a selection of Pacific Rim and northern circumpolar countries.  (Embed this outcome in the various studies that students are doing in the citizenship studies.)

Indicators

In Pacific and northern Canada and a selection of Pacific Rim and circumpolar countries

  • Examine maps of various projections and scales to determine characteristics and application of each kind and propose the advantages, limitations, and potential uses :
    • Mercator
    • Peters
    • circumpolar
    • plate tectonics
  • Describe the nature/kind of the physical, political, and population geography and construct generalizations about the nature of the physical, political, and population geography
  • Locate and identify Treaty territories on a map of Canada.
  • Locate and identify the homeland of the Métis on a map of Canada.*
  • Locate the continents and significant physical features
    • landforms
    • water bodies
    • climatic zones
    • vegetation zones
  • Identify the major population clusters
Teachers are encouraged to use various types of maps for all the inquiries and provide specific instruction regarding the different types of maps as required.  This allows for authentic use of maps.
*The indicators followed by an asterisk highlight Métis perspectives and are additional to Saskatchewan curricula. They assist students in discovering the experiences of Métis people of Canada. 

Part B: Learning Plan

Throughout the inquiries, students are encouraged to analyze and use different types of maps to situate current issues in Canada, and selected Pacific Rim and northern circumpolar countries. (DR7.1)

This allows students to use maps in authentic learning experiences.

 

Students will:

  • Investigate the structures and processes of democratic government in Canada at several different levels (PA7.2).
  • Compare the sources of power for individuals, nations, and regions in a selection of Pacific Rim and circumpolar countries to the experiences of Canada; (PA7.1).
  • Compare different forms of governance specifically democracy, oligarchy, and dictatorship (PA7.3).

Students will be exploring these outcomes in two separate inquiries.  They will first examine democracy and the various forms of governance within Canada and then move to examining governance structures in countries bordering the Pacific Rim. Students are asked to make comparisons about the distribution of power and answer questions about different forms of governance based on their understandings of democratic processes in Canada.

Democracy and Governance are abstract concepts.  Teachers are encouraged to let students explore these concepts by studying examples that are close to home or as real as possible. Applying principles of differentiation, allow opportunities for students to interview people to increase their understanding through conversation as an alternative to searching text for answers.  

Teacher Note:

Teachers are the best judges of the cultural make-up and levels of understanding of their classrooms.  Given that many students may be newcomers to Canada more background experiences may be required for students to understand the concepts.  The resources list in Section C may provide additional supports.

QUESTIONS TO GUIDE INQUIRY

Questions are posted and discussed with students at the start of the exploration of study. These open-ended questions are continually revisited; encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study; form the evidence of understanding; and, frame the assessment at the end of the unit of study. Guiding questions are posed to support student thinking as they explore the answers to the larger overarching questions.

Teachers may want to consider putting the questions into a “Before, During, After” chart to note the changes in students’ thinking as a result of the inquiries.

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • Does democracy work? How could democracy be improved?
    • How does democracy affect you on a daily basis?
    • Is democracy the fairest way to represent people?
    • How is “fairness” determined in a democracy?
    • Do you think our democratic Canadian government is fair to all Canadians?
    • Should/Can a democratic government be fair to its constituents?
  • What is the relationship between rights and responsibilities?
    • What sorts of rights do you have and what responsibilities do those rights create?
    • What responsibilities does living in a democracy create?
    • What responsibility do you have to balance personal needs with the (global) community’s needs?
    • Are rights and responsibilities the same for everyone? What would account for the difference? (age, gender, race?)
  • How do my actions influence others? How do other actions influence you?
    • How do you control the impact of your actions/decisions?
    • What is the power and responsibility of the individual to make a difference in the world?
  • What is the impact of affirming multiculturalism in a democracy?
    • How does Canada’s observance of multiculturalism impact governing decisions?
    • How does having diverse cultures in your community affect the way you act?
    • What is the appropriate Citizenship response to multiculturalism?

Vocabulary

  • Affirm
  • Authority
  • Democracy
  • Dictatorship
  • Force
  • Influence
  • Oligarchy
  • Power
Teacher Note:

Guiding questions are suggested to support teachers as they explore the essential questions.  Teachers are encouraged to use the questions that support their classroom work and to make wording changes or add additional questions as required. Guiding questions are more closely related to the inquiry.

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section introduces the concepts and helps teachers gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and allow students to think about and talk about.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific, incidental, and background teaching required to explore these outcomes. Vocabulary is introduced and noted here.  This section frames the “We do” portion of the lesson where teachers guide the initial structure of the inquiry.

For more information on Canada’s government system visit:
https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/Education/OurCountryOurParliament/home-e.aspx

Check the Glossary in the Appendix for Vocabulary used in these inquiries.

Need more experience with democracy?  Try this…

Make classroom decisions by:

  • Voting
  • Dictating
  • Consensus

Talk about the:

  • Similarities and differences in process
  • Feelings of power or power inequity
  • Levels of satisfaction with the decisions made

Inquiry – Examining Democracy in Canada

Does Democracy work? 

How could democracy be improved?

Use the following definition of democracy, see also the glossary.

Democracy Defined

“The word democracy describes a political system.  In a democratic country, all eligible citizens have the right to participate, either directly or indirectly, in making the decisions that affect them. Canadian citizens normally elect someone to represent them in making decisions at the different levels of government. This is called a representative democracy. Countries like Canada, the United States of America and the United Kingdom all have representative democracies. Before European people came to Canada, many different Indigenous people governed their regions using many different political systems, including a democratic one.”

Retrieved from: http://www.parl.gc.ca/About/Parliament/Education/OurCountryOurParliament/html_booklet/democracy-defined-e.html

The reproduction of this text has not been produced in affiliation with, or with the endorsement of, the Government of Canada.

What is democracy? 

  • Surface students understanding of democracy.
  • Identify groups that students belong to. Within the following groupings – family, school, community groups – have students identify:
    • How membership is determined?
    • How decisions are made?
    • Determine whether the group is democratic.
    • Do students feel as though they have a voice in the organizations or groups to which they belong? Explain their thinking.
DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING
This section is the core of the lesson.  It describes the main activity(ies) involved.  In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the essential questions.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities. This forms the “We do” “They do” section of the inquiry where students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations.

Teachers work with students to clarify understandings.

Have students consider:

  • Does democracy work?
    • What are the ways that democracy affects you?
    • Describe ways that democracy works or does not work in your personal lives, school, community, city and country.
  • How is fairness determined in a democracy?
  • Would students say that democracy is fair?
    • What are the students’ criteria for determining fairness?

(Generate lists and discuss.  Be sure to consider different perspectives and points of view in trying to decide on the critical factors of fairness.)

  • Would students describe democracy as fair?
    • How is power obtained in a democracy?
    • How is power maintained in a democracy?

Post student answers to the questions about the working of democracy.

Have students interview a variety of people using the questions they are considering.  Compare answers.

What are the Similarities – Differences?

Do the answers vary along lines of diversity?  (See diversity wheel – Part C: Resources

 

What are the processes of a democracy?

The next part of the inquiry has students examining the different levels of governance within Canada to determine:

  • Various roles and responsibilities in governance;
  • How power is obtained in a democracy; and,
  • How power is maintained in a democracy.
Jigsaw Research and Study Process

Divide the class into groups and have each group research a specific area to present to class.  Each group is asked to find out the information in the questions posed.

Encourage students to present information learned in a variety of modes including speaking, writing, drama, multimedia, or other modes so that all students have an entrance point for demonstrating their learning and understanding.

Governance Spheres of Influence

Levels of Governance

  1. Local (reeve, mayor, councilor),
  2. Provincial or Territorial (member of the legislative assembly),
  3. First Nations (councilor, chief) system of government,
  4. Federal (Member of Parliament),
  5. Métis locals and governance structures.

Within each level of governance:

  • Identify and describe the roles of the elected representatives
  • Investigate and identify the election processes
    • Nomination requirements
    • Nomination process
    • How elected
    • Term of office
  • Identify the lines of responsibilities to other identified levels of government
  • Identify the form of power at each level of governance
    • Authority, Force, Influence

Collect research in graphic organizer.  (See appendix)

  • Examining Democracy in Canada graphic organizer
  • Governance Spheres of Influence – Concept Mapping

After groups have made their presentations work with the class to develop a concept map, or use the graphic organizer in the appendix, to:

  • Chart the structures/organization of various levels of government
  • Indicate lines of responsibility (spheres of influence) between the governing levels.
  • Note areas of shared responsibilities. Post the concept map for future reference of next sets of overarching questions.

 

  • Reflect again on students’ initial thinking regarding how they are affected by democracy and whether democracy is fair.

Note and chart changes in students’ thinking as the inquiries progress.

Throughout this inquiry, have students reflect on the actualization of treaty contracts between the negotiating nations using the rights and responsibilities understandings.

For additional background information regarding treaties try:

For Treaty Text see:

What is the relationship between rights and responsibilities?

  • Discuss the statement “for every right there is a responsibility.”
  • What sorts of rights do you have and what responsibilities do those rights create?
  • What responsibilities does living in a democracy create?

Use the questions above to reflect upon the concepts considered below.

Rights and Responsibilities Inherent in Treaty

Negotiation of treaty with Canada’s First Nations people is an example of rights and responsibilities that were negotiated between sovereign nations for the benefit of citizens within those nations.  The negotiations provide examples of the use of cooperation, balance and harmony of sources of power between nations.  The actualization is a different story.

Examine the uses of power in the negotiations of the treaty which governs the local area.

  • Identify the basis of power (resources, numbers, organization)
    • held by the First Nations
    • held by the Europeans
  • Identify the benefits achieved by both partners to Treaty
    • Provide examples of the use of cooperation, balance and harmony of sources of power between nations
    • On a map, represent, locate, and identify Treaty territories.
  • Examine the treaty terms
    • What was negotiated by:
      • First Nations?
      • Government or British Crown?
    • Examine the treaty medal
    • What is symbolized in the medal?
Examine the Truth and Reconciliation report to identify recommendations to redress Canada’s failure to honour treaty negotiations.

http://www.trc.ca/websites/trcinstitution/index.php?p=890

Teacher Note:

Need more frontloading information on Governance and Democracy?  Try…

Teacher Note:

Consider opportunities for students to interview actual governing representatives to find answers through conversation rather than relying only on text exploration.

APPLY AND EXTEND KNOWLEDGE

This section includes ideas to extend the inquiry or apply concepts explored. This section may also include additional reflective questions to promote student connection to the topic.  This forms the “You do” section – extend thinking beyond the classroom discussions and inquiry experiences.  Pose additional reflective questions that have been raised to encourage critical and creative thinking. 
For further information on the Métis homeland see:

Where is the Métis Homeland?

https://www.canadiangeographic.ca/article/toward-metis-homeland

Rights and Responsibilities in Métis Land Settlement

The use of Scrip to extinguish Métis land claims is an example of rights and responsibilities used by a federal government to benefit its citizens and ensure economic prosperity and social justice.  The actualization is a different story.

Examine the uses of power in the implementation of the Scrip process in Saskatchewan.

  • Identify the basis of power (resources, numbers, organization).
    • Held by Métis people
    • Held by the federal government
  • Identify the potential benefits to be achieved by both groups in the actualization of the Scrip process.
    • Métis people
    • Federal government
  • Examine how the imbalance of power led to the loss of those potential benefits for the Métis people.

What is the relationship between rights and responsibilities with respect to Treaty contracts? To Métis Land Settlement?

  • What sorts of rights do you have and what responsibilities do those rights create?
  • What responsibilities does Canada have to First Nations people, to the Métis?
  • Consider the developed criteria for fairness. How fairly have First Nations people been treated by Canada?  How fairly have the Métis people been treated by Canada?
  • What should be done to redress these ongoing issues?

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section introduces the concepts and helps teachers gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and allow students to think about and talk about.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific and incidental teaching required to explore these outcomes. Vocabulary is introduced and noted here.  This section frames the “We do” portion of the lesson where teachers guide the initial structure of the inquiry.
How does change occur within a democracy?

Have students choose or assign students the following specific areas to research:

  • service organizations
  • trade unions
  • First Nations and Métis organizations
  • co-operative movements
  • advocacy groups

Within their area of research have them identify:

  • What areas of or specific change is your group noted for?
    • describe the change
    • indicate the level of governance impacted
      • local, provincial, national, or international community
    • What kind of power exists in the organization?
    • Describe the process used to effect change within the organization.

In this inquiry students are examining alternate forms of governance and comparing them against democracy.  Students are exploring alternate governance structures in countries bordering the Pacific Rim.  They are becoming experts on that particular country and teaching their information to other students.

Inquiry – Examining Alternate Forms of Governance

Students have been researching different kinds of governing structures within Canada.  This inquiry leads them to explore other kinds of governance in countries bordering the Pacific Rim and compare against their understanding of how democracy operates in Canada.

 

Is Democracy Ideal?

  • What makes an ideal governance structure in students’ minds?
    • Identify criteria
  • What might make a governance structure better than another? or How would students improve democracy?
  • Do you think our democratic Canadian government is fair to all Canadians?
  • Should Canadian democracy be fair to all constituents?
    • What are some of the criteria for fairness?
  • What is the impact of affirming multiculturalism in a democratic society?
    • How does Canada’s observance of multiculturalism impact governing decisions?

What is the appropriate Citizenship response to multiculturalism?

DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING
This section is the core of the inquiry.  It describes the main activity(ies) involved.  In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the essential questions.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities. This forms the “We do” “They do” section of the inquiry where students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations.

Teachers work with students to clarify understandings.

For some classes, teacher may complete the Governance Model organizer using Canada as the primary country and examine democracy so that students are clear on what they will be researching.

Students are asked to extend their understanding about Canadian democracy and consider other forms of governance in Pacific Rim and circumpolar countries.   They will consider where leaders of the identified countries get their power or authority and how that country’s form of governing compares with students’ understanding of Canadian democracy.  For all areas of study, students are encouraged to use a variety of maps in their research and in their presentations.

Choose from the following Pacific Rim Countries:

  • China (Republic of China)
  • North Korea
  • Vietnam (Socialist Republic of Vietnam)
  • Fiji
  • Cambodia
  • Chile, Colombia
  • Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, USA (Alaska)

Using the accompanying organizer, have students research and report to the larger group for comparison and discussion:

Within your country identify the:

  • Location of the country compared to Canada
  • National leader of the country, republic
  • Organizational structure of the governing body
    • Identify/label the system of government i.e. oligarchy, dictatorship and democracy (based on what research says)
    • Principles/tenets
  • Primary resources of the country and who controls them (Use appropriate maps to identify and demonstrate)
  • Strengths
  • Weaknesses/Opportunities for Improvement

Collect research using the Characteristics of Governing Structures organizer in appendix.

Work either in groups or as individuals and then share ideas and discuss or develop as a whole class.

  • Identify the characteristics of various governing structures
  • Be sure to include the alternate names that these governments are also known as (i.e. Communist aka Socialist Republic)
  • Consider the forms of power (force, authority, influence) used by the leaders in the various governments:
    • What kind of power is evident?
    • How that power was obtained?
    • How power is maintained?
    • Identify the strengths and weaknesses of the governing organization/government.
    • Compare to Canadian democracy.

Be prepared to explain your thinking.

Students have been researching how changes occur in a democracy.

  • How easily does change occur in countries that are not democracies?
  • What evidence supports their thinking?
  • Why do students think this is so?
Process:

For all areas of study in grade 7, students will be comparing the Canadian experiences to countries bordering the Pacific Rim and northern circumpolar countries.  Teachers are encouraged to identify specific countries and have students study those same countries repeatedly so that students can gain a stronger understanding of the diversity within those countries.  In a sense, students are becoming the “expert” on their specific country.

These are very “big” concepts.  Throughout this study, it is critical that teachers help students to step back to see the big picture.

  • What themes are emerging?
  • What are the similarities and differences?
  • Why do students think this is so?

The independence level of the class, will determine how much teacher direction is required to do this.

EVIDENCE OF LEARNING AND UNDERSTANDING

Assessment of learning will vary but should allow students to demonstrate their learning and understanding in a variety of ways.
Debates force students to consider alternate perspectives that might not be one that they would normally defend.
Students should be able demonstrate an understanding of:

  • The forms of government in Canada and Pacific Rim countries.
  • The physical geography in both Canadian and Pacific Rim countries.
  • Current issues faced by both Canadian and Pacific Rim countries.

Demonstration of Learning Suggestions

  • Research a current event from a specific Pacific Rim country.
    • Clothing industry
    • Tainted milk scandal – China
    • Sunken ferry – Vietnam
    • Public transportation
    • Rail safety
    • Price of chocolate
    • other
  • Draw a connection between the current issues in Canada and your researched issue.
  • Outline current problem/situation and consider how different governing organizations would solve that problem.

Have students choose a particular form of governance and debate which one is the better government using the following prompt:

  • Democracy is a governance structure that represents a western mentality that does not acknowledge the strengths of other alternative governing methods.

STUDENT CITIZENSHIP JOURNAL OPPORTUNITIES

Students will continue to explore and understanding of their role as a Canadian citizen and reflect on their perspective in an Ongoing Journal.

Students are keeping a Citizenship Journal to reflect upon their developing views of citizenship.  This section provides prompts for student journals.  Students are invited to choose one that interests them or propose their own. Students can also respond to any of the essential questions.

Students are encouraged to respond using a variety of genres.

Students may choose to respond to any essential questions.

  • How is your life directly affected by multi-culturalism?
  • How do you contribute to democracy?
  • Would you like to be a leader? What kind of a leader would you be? What strengths do you have that would make you a leader?
  • Do you think that democracy is ever taken for granted? Support your thinking.
  • How do you contribute to your family? What is your role in your family?
  • How do you contribute to your school/community/country?

Part C: Engaged Citizens Resources

LESSON RESOURCES

All websites accessed November 2017.

http://www.parl.gc.ca/about/parliament/publications/democracyinaction/democracy-e.asp

CROSS CURRICULAR CONNECTIONS

Language Arts

Themes

  • Personal and Philosophical – Students will reflect upon:
    • self-image and self-esteem; and,
    • self and life, and on their beliefs and values and those of their society.
  • Social, Cultural, and Historical – Students will:
    • look outward and examine their relationships with others, their community, and that of the world; and,
    • consider the historical context.
  • Environmental and Technological – Students will:
    • explore the elements of the natural and constructed world and the role of technology and related developments in their society.
  • Communicative – Students will:
    • consider the role of communication in their lives and the ideas and technologies that help people become effective communicators.

Treaty Education

  • TR7: Analyze to what extent each of the signatories to treaty meets their respective obligations.
  • SI7: Examine Oral Tradition as a valid way of preserving accounts of what transpired and what was intended by entering into treaty.
  • HC7: Examine the Indian Act, including its amendments, and explore the effects it has on the lives of First Nations.
  • TPP7: Investigate the impact of Bill C31 on the equality of genders under the Indian Act.

Health

Understanding, Skills, and Confidences (USC)

  • USC7.4 Demonstrate a personalized and coherent understanding of the importance of nurturing harmony in relationships (with self, others, and the environment), and apply effective strategies to re/establish harmony when conflict arises.
  • USC7.7 Investigate and express an understanding of possible discrepancies in morals (e.g., beliefs, ethics, virtues, understanding of right/wrong) that may determine and/or affect the commitment to the well-being of self, family, community, and the environment.

Science

Life Science: Interactions within Ecosystems (IE)

  • IE7.1 Relate key aspects of Indigenous knowledge to their understanding of ecosystems. [CP]
  • IE7.2 Observe, illustrate, and analyze living organisms within local ecosystems as part of interconnected food webs, populations, and communities. [SI]
  • IE7.4 Analyze how ecosystems change in response to natural and human influences, and propose actions to reduce the impact of human behaviour on a specific ecosystem. [DM, CP]

Earth and Space Science: Earth’s Crust and Resources (EC)

  • EC7.1 Analyze societal and environmental impacts of historical and current catastrophic geological events, and scientific understanding of movements and forces within Earth’s crust. [SI]
  • EC7.2 Identify locations and processes used to extract Earth’s geological resources and examine the impacts of those locations and processes on society and the environment. [SI, DM, CP]
  • EC7.3 Investigate the characteristics and formation of the surface geology of Saskatchewan, including soil, and identify correlations between surface geology and past, present, and possible future land uses. [DM, SI]

GLOSSARY

The following definitions are found at: Vocabulary.com

“Text from Vocabulary.com, Copyright ©1998-2016 Thinkmap, Inc.  All rights reserved.”

 

Authority

If you have the authority to do something, you have the right or power to do it. You are the big cheese. Or, if you know more about a topic than most, you are an authority on that topic.

Giving someone authority grants them the power to make important decisions or have accepted opinions. When you leave your kids with a babysitter, you give her the authority to put them to bed at 7 p.m., no matter how much they insist you let them stay up until midnight. You’ll feel more confident leaving the babysitter in charge of bedtime decisions if she’s written two books on the subject and is an authority, or renowned expert, on children’s sleep habits. Being an authority on children’s sleep habits helps your babysitter enforce that 7 p.m. bedtime, but it may not convince the kids.

Democracy

Whether you’re talking about your glee club or a powerful nation, the word democracy describes government based on participation of the people, either directly or through elected representatives.

Democracy traces back to the Greek words demos, meaning “people,” and kratia, meaning “power.” “People power” remains central to democracy, whether you’re describing a country or a much smaller organization. If your glee club is run as a democracy, then everybody gets to vote on questions like what you’re going to sing and what kind of outfits you’re going to wear. Because democracy assumes some idea of equality, it’s often used to mean a just society, one in which everyone is treated equally.

Dictatorship

A dictatorship is a government or a social situation where one person makes all the rules and decisions without input from anyone else.

Dictatorship implies absolute power — one person who takes control — of a political situation, a family, a classroom or even a camping expedition. In government, a dictatorship leaves no room for input from anyone who is not the top guy or gal. The noun comes from the late 14th century Latin word, dictare, which means to “repeat or say often.” In a dictatorship, one person keeps repeating the same command: “My way or the highway.”

Force

If you’ve ever walked outside in a blizzard, you’ve felt the force, or strength, of the wind and snow pushing against your body.

Force often describes a physical energy that can be seen or felt, but it has other meanings. A powerful person can exert a force just by using particular words or body language. Written words can also have a force, or strong influence. When it’s a verb, force means to make something happen using physical strength or some other powerful effort, which is what you do when you force the wrong key into a keyhole.

Influence

Influence is the power to have an important effect on someone or something. If someone influences someone else, they are changing a person or thing in an indirect but important way.

Sometimes a person who influences another doesn’t intend to have any effect, but sometimes they are using influence to benefit themselves. An example of a personal benefit or advantage would be the use of political influence. Influence is also a verb, from Latin influere to flow in.

Oligarchy

Does it ever feel like just a few people have all the power? If it’s a government that’s run like this, it’s an oligarchy. A country that has this form of government is an oligarchy too.

The political term, oligarchy, comes to English from the Greek with its meaning intact – a form of government run by a small number of people such as wealthy landowners, royalty or powerful military figures. If you say that you can’t fight the oligarchy, you mean the leaders of such a place. Sometimes the word refers to the few powerful people in charge of a large company or system. A financial oligarchy might try to block reform.

Power

Someone with power has physical strength or they’re in control of things. So a weakling who’s in charge of a business still has a lot of power.

Power comes from the Latin word potere, which means “to be able.” But things with power are much more than able — they’re able to exert a lot of force. “The powers that be” are those who hold authority, and “the power behind the throne” refers to the people who exert influence without being formally in charge. When used as a verb, power means “to supply with mechanical or electrical energy,” as in a nuclear-powered submarine.

 

Marketing and Communications, University of Saskatchewan

Permissions for use from U. of S. Dept. of Ed.

GRADE 7 CITIZENSHIP STUDIES LIFELONG LEARNING CITIZENS

Part A: Curricular Connections and Background

BROAD AREA OF CITIZENSHIP

Lifelong Learning citizens continuously strive to understand the dynamics of change and critically seek new information so that they can make reasoned decisions.  They strive to develop a critical understanding of, actively explore and analyze events, and consider the effects of decisions at a local, national, and global level.  They are learning that there are different points of view or perspectives to issues and think about the different impacts that rules and laws can have on different groups of people.   This area of Citizenship study develops skills, attitudes and knowledge so that students can appreciate the power that comes through advocating for specific causes.

OVERVIEW AND DESIRED RESULTS OF CITIZENSHIP STUDY

Grade Seven students compare and contrast Canadian structures and governing processes with those operating within Pacific Rim countries.  This area of citizenship uses critical thinking skills in order to better understand the relationship between geography, resources, culture, and historical events.

Students continue to develop opinions regarding the distribution of power and privilege at a national and global level and reflect on their role and responsibility as a Canadian citizen. This area of citizenship focuses on the student using critical thinking skills in order to better understand, the relationship between geography, resources, culture and historical events.

ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS OF CITIZENSHIP STUDY

By exploring the lessons of history against the light of current issues, students begin to understand the on-going changes that affect any diverse culture and appreciate that continued learning is required to understand new perspectives.  Students continue to explore cultural perspectives and nurture consideration and adherence of diversity.

Students extend their understanding that their actions may have long-term effects that can influence the physical and social environment of which they are a part.

Students will understand that:

  • History and current events are understood through diverse historical perspectives.
  • Democracy requires discussion and consideration of alternate points of view in order to find a balance between individual perspectives.
  • Citizens value the needs of the collective common good and consider how their actions impact the collective well-being.
  • Canadian multicultural policies challenge citizenship tenets and require consideration of multiple perspectives.
  • Canada’s history includes First Nations, Métis, and Inuit governance and perspectives and each have contributed to Canadian identity.
  • Decision-making is a complex process with far-reaching impacts.
  • Engaged citizens strive to be knowledgeable, uphold their rights, and act on their responsibilities.
  • Enduring understandings are the big ideas that stimulate thinking, guide the inquiry and are linked to outcomes.
  • Essential questions point to the “big ideas” in the inquiry and should be considered and reconsidered as the inquiry progresses.
  • Answers to these questions form the evidence of learning at the end of study.

KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL DEVELOPMENT

Students will use the information to:

  • Explore diverse historical perspectives;
  • Understand the inequities of power and authority that can accompany diversity;
  • Appreciate diverse cultural perspectives;
  • Understand the importance of and develop skills for advocacy;
  • Appreciate that citizenship requires involvement, thought, discussion; and, learning about issues that impact others nationally and globally.

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS

Essential questions are discussed with students at the start of the exploration of study.  These open-ended questions encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study and will form the evidence of understanding at the end of the unit.

  • How do you determine fairness? / Whose perspective should be considered when determining what is fair?
  • If opinions are personal perceptions then can everyone’s opinion be right?
  • What is the impact of past experience on decision-making?
  • What do you need to consider when you choose to influence others?
  • How does the impact of the natural environment affect the development of society?
Essential Questions are open-ended questions that are continually revisited, encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study, form the evidence of understanding and frame the assessment at the end of the study.

CURRICULUM OUTCOMES AND INDICATORS

Student friendly outcomes should be posted throughout the inquiry and continually referenced so the goals of the learning are clearly available to students.

Sask. Curriculum Outcomes /Student Friendly 

IN7.2

Examine the effects of globalization on the lives of people in Canada and in circumpolar and Pacific Rim countries. 

Indicators:

  • Identify the countries of origin of people, or of personal objects or tools (e.g., clothing, foods, friends, classmates, teachers, electronic equipment, favourite websites).
  • Investigate the international links of a Saskatchewan business.
  • Define globalization, and identify examples of globalization in the local community.
  • Analyze the economic impact of globalization in relation to the effects on the environment.
  • Articulate and interpret the main arguments for and against globalization.
  • Conduct an inquiry to determine the effects of globalization on the local community.

IN7.3

Analyze the relationship of technology to globalization

Indicators:

  • Identify technological connections that exist in the student’s life, and classify them as local, national, or international.
  • Analyze the risks and benefits related to various technologies.
  • Develop an argument that addresses the impact of technology and globalization on societies.

DR7.3

Analyze the relationship between current and historical events and the physical and social environments in Pacific and northern Canada and in a selection of Pacific Rim and circumpolar countries. / Students will see how current and historical events have affected the physical and social environments in a selection of Pacific Rim and Circumpolar Countries.

Indicators:

  • Examine the effects of natural or human catastrophes on affected populations, and, by extension, on the history of human habitation of the region.
  • Investigate relationships within and among select circumpolar and Pacific Rim countries to determine reasons for current political and economic relationships.
  • Relate current issues to location by using physical maps, political maps, and population maps of Canada, and a selection of Pacific Rim and circumpolar countries in order to understand the role of geography in shaping political events (e.g., sovereignty over the North-West Passage, Western intervention in other countries, political alliances, adoption of a system of government) and economic activity (e.g., economic alliances, trading partners, exploitation of resources, impact of the reserve system on First Nations populations) in Canada, and a selection of Pacific Rim and circumpolar countries.
  • Analyze the influence of contact with another culture on the Indigenous peoples of Canada, circumpolar countries, and a selection of Pacific Rim countries (e.g., the influence of Europeans on the indigenous peoples of Canada, Mexico, and Australia).
  • Assess the effects of relocations and deportations of affected groups in Canada, and in circumpolar and Pacific Rim countries (e.g., the Acadian deportation, the treatment of European immigrants during WWI, the internment of Japanese-Canadians in WW2, First Nations children in Canada and Australia abducted from their homes to attend residential schools).
  • Conduct an inquiry synthesizing the link between historical events, population dynamics, and environment.
  • Debate the positions of circumpolar and Pacific Rim countries with respect to climate change.

RW7.1

Explain the role of barter, trade and sharing in traditional economies in Canada and circumpolar and Pacific Rim Countries. / In what ways did barter, trade, and sharing (past and present) affect the economy and history of Canada and Pacific Rim Countries.

Indicators:

  • Describe examples of barter, trade, and sharing in the local community.
  • Question whether economies based on barter, trade, and sharing are sustainable.
  • Role play the practices of barter trade, and sharing used to obtain goods and services.
  • Present the experiences of Elders and senior citizens in the local community regarding barter, sharing, and trade.

Part B: Learning Plan

Throughout the inquiries students are encouraged to analyze and use different types of maps to situate current issues in Canada, and selected Pacific Rim and northern circumpolar countries.  (DR7.1)

This allows students to use maps in authentic learning experiences.

Students will:

  • Examine the multiple effects of globalization, by considering the economic, environmental, and cultural effects on the lives of people in Canada and in circumpolar and Pacific Rim countries.
  • Consider the impact that technology has had on globalization.
  • Analyze the relationship between current and historical events and the physical and social environments in Canada and in a selection of Pacific Rim and circumpolar countries.
  • Explain the role of barter, trade and sharing in traditional economies in Canada and circumpolar and Pacific Rim Countries.
This inquiry is broken into a number of smaller inquiries that when examined together will begin to show themes.  Teachers are encouraged to use the jigsaw research strategy: students’ research specific questions, present their findings in a variety of ways, examine information for answers to overarching essential questions.

Teachers should also continue to help students note themes that are surfacing.

Students are comparing the Canadian experiences to countries bordering the Pacific Rim and northern circumpolar countries.  In some cases, teachers may wish to begin with the exploration of Canada’s experiences so that any misunderstandings about what student will be asked to research could be clarified.   Have students apply their understandings of terminology and concepts by researching selected countries in the Pacific Rim and northern circumpolar countries.

QUESTIONS TO GUIDE INQUIRY

Questions are posted and discussed with students at the start of the exploration of study. These open-ended questions are continually revisited; encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study; form the evidence of understanding; and, frame the assessment at the end of the unit of study. Guiding questions are posed to support student thinking as they explore the answers to the larger overarching questions.

Teachers may want to consider putting the questions into a “Before, During, After” chart to note the changes in students’ thinking as a result of the inquiries.

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • How do you influence others?
    • What is the impact of those influences: positive or negative?
    • Is it possible to control the impact of those influences?
    • What impacts on the world does our lifestyle create?
  • If opinions are personal perceptions then can everyone’s opinion, be right?
    • What might be another perspective?
    • What role does evidence play in forming opinion?
  • What impact does past experience have on your decision-making?
    • How important is understanding historical events to understanding current decision-making?
    • What causes you to change your mind?
    • What does it take for society to make a change?
  • How does the natural environment affect the development of society?
    • In what ways does your environment and where you live affect how your cultural and social behaviours develop?
    • Are you a user or protector of the environment?
    • Does the environment or your relationship with the environment impact your beliefs and values?

Vocabulary

  • Barter
  • Common Good
  • Ecological
  • Ecological stewardship
  • Economics
  • Ethnocide
  • Exploitation
  • Export
  • Globalization
  • Marginalization
  • Opinion
  • Social Environment
  • Stewardship
  • Sustainable/sustainability
  • Trade
Jigsaw Research and Study Process

Divide class into groups and have each group choose a specific country to learn about and present to class.  Each group must find out the information in the frameworks and inquiries posed below. Teachers are encouraged to identify specific countries and have students study those same countries repeatedly so that students can gain a stronger understanding of the issues facing the citizens of those countries and diversity of solutions of those countries.  At the end of the studies the students will be experts on a particular country and will share their knowledge with their classmates.

Encourage students to present information learned in a variety of modes including speaking, writing, drama, multimedia, etc. so that all students have an entrance point for demonstrating their learning and understanding.

Teacher Note:

Guiding questions are suggested to support teachers as they explore the essential questions.  Teachers are encouraged to use the questions that support their classroom work and to make wording changes or add additional questions as required. Guiding questions are more closely related to the inquiry.

For all areas of study in Grade 7 students will be comparing the Canadian experiences to countries bordering the Pacific Rim and northern circumpolar countries.  For these inquiries teachers may choose to begin with the examination of Canada’s experiences so that any misunderstandings about what students are asked to research can be clarified.   Students can then apply their understandings of terminology and concepts by researching selected countries in the Pacific Rim and northern circumpolar countries.

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section introduces the concepts and helps teachers gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and allow students to think about and talk about.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific and incidental teaching required to explore these outcomes. Vocabulary is introduced and noted here.  This section frames the “We do” portion of the lesson where teachers guide the initial structure of the inquiry.
Inquiry – What are the effects of globalization on my life?  How do my decisions, life style choices impact globalization?

This inquiry has students examine the effects of globalization on the lives of people in Canada and in circumpolar and Pacific Rim countries.  Students will also begin to consider the impact of their life-style and decisions on the global economy.

  • How do you influence others?
    • What is the impact of those influences: positive or negative?
    • Is it possible to control the impact of those influences?
    • What influences does our life-style create?
      • on people?
      • on the world?
    • What are the impacts of supporting my life-style on my local community and the global community?
      • What is the impact of those influences: positive or negative?
      • Is it possible to control the impact of those influences?
    • What are my responsibilities regarding the impacts of my life-style as a global citizen?
      • Do different cultures view their responsibility to the environment differently?

Pose questions to students, post student thinking for reflection after study.  Surface additional questions.

In groups, have students think about and talk about their understanding of the following words and/or concepts:

  • Common Good
    • What is common good? How is common good determined?

Develop a list of criteria with students to describe common good.

  • Whose perspective is represented in the discussion of common good? Why is this?
  • Whose perspective is not represented? Why is this?
  • Is common good constant? What impacts common good?

Check the identified criteria to determine how universal the application of that criteria is.

  • How does culture and community impact the idea of common good?

 

It is important for students to consider whether common good is indeed constant for all Canadian citizens.

  • Globalization
    • What is globalization?
    • What might be the benefits of globalization?
    • What might be the negative effects of globalization?
    • What might be another perspective on the effects of globalization?
    • What is the cost of globalization?
    • How do our lifestyle choices contribute to globalization?
  • How are Globalization and Common Good connected? or
  • What is the relationship between globalization and common good?
  • Can there be “Global Common Good”?  What would it include?
Throughout this study, it is critical that teachers help students to step back to see the big picture.

  • What themes are emerging?
  • What are the similarities and differences?
  • Why do students think this is so?

The independence level of the class, will determine how much teacher direction is required to do this.

Post student’s thinking; look for commonalities and differences among students.  What themes are emerging?  Continually revisit students’ ideas to note changes to thinking as study progresses.  Provide opportunities for students to add their questions to the research.
DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING
This section is the core of the lesson.  It describes the main activity(ies) involved.  In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the essential questions.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities.  This forms the  “They do” section of the inquiry where students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations. Teachers work with students to clarify understandings.

Plot countries of origin on a map for all survey results to help students gain a sense of which countries are having the most impact on Canada.

See the appendix for graphic organizers to support student organization.

  • What is the current impact of globalization on your everyday life?

Brainstorm with students, items they use on a regular basis or people with whom they come in regular contact.  Classify their answers within three categories:

  • Basic Needs, Technology and Social Contexts

Survey

Divide students into groups and give each group responsibility to conduct a survey and identify the countries of origin of:

  • Basic Needs
    • foods in grocery stores vegetables, fruits, meats
    • clothing that students wear, stores where students shop
  • Social Context Friends: classmates, teachers, people in students’ lives
  • Technology: personal objects or tools used by students e.g., electronic equipment, favourite websites

If…

“Globalization is the process of ideas, products, and people moving around the planet with greater ease and efficiency. Globalization takes advantage of cheaper labor in less developed nations but increases free trade between nations and the free flow of capital.”

Vocabulary.com

Then (based on their survey research) consider…

  • How large a role does globalization play on the everyday lives of students in the classroom?
    • Could students live without these goods? People? Technology?
  • How would students classify the globalization connections in the room?
    • Local, national, international?
  • How would students rate the impact: positive or negative/risks or benefits?
    • Would students say they have benefited from globalization?
    • Have there been any detrimental impacts from globalization?
      • To the local community? To other communities? Explain.
    • What has been the impact on the common good of the student community?
      • Rate each area of impact – Need, Social Contexts, Technology – according to amount of impact – most impact (3) to least impact (1)

Have each group develop a summary statement in response to the questions posed above.  Compare student thoughts for similarities and differences.  Look for themes.

Post for later reflection.

  • What questions are students asking as a result of this new information?
  • Why is this information important to know?

APPLY AND EXTEND KNOWLEDGE

This section includes ideas to extend the inquiry or apply concepts explored. This section may also include additional reflective questions to promote student connection to the topic.  This forms the “You do” section – extend thinking beyond the classroom discussions and inquiry experiences.  Pose additional reflective questions that have been raised to encourage critical and creative thinking. 

Divide students into groups and using the results from the previous survey of produce, goods, and clothing used by students, do a comparative analysis of the distance that the goods had to travel to get to your community and the cost to import these items.

Each group has responsibility for one category on the survey.  Use current fuel prices to obtain an approximate fuel cost for the produce and/or materials.

 See appendix for graphic organizers to support student research.

Divide students into groups and using the results from the previous survey of produce, goods, and clothing used by students, do a comparative analysis of the distance that the goods had to travel to get to your community and the cost to import these items.

Each group has responsibility for one category on the survey.  Use current fuel prices to obtain an approximate fuel cost for the produce and/or materials.

 See appendix for graphic organizers to support student research.

 

  • What does globalization cost the environment?
  • Does the cost of the produce/goods/technology to the consumer reflect the cost to transport the item?
  • How would students assess/appraise the cost to the environment of having a variety of food in their grocery store?
  • How would students assess/appraise the cost to the environment of having access to the goods/technology they commonly use?
  • How sustainable is the practice of transporting these goods to suit student’s lifestyle?
  • Would students describe the effects of having access to global food/goods/technology as positive or negative? Explain their thinking.
  • What has been the impact on the global common good of the students’ lifestyle?
  • What is the student’s responsibility as a global citizen to control the effects of their lifestyle?

Post student responses.

Watch video – Story of Stuff – found at: https://storyofstuff.org/   under movies tab or at:

http://storyofstuff.org/movies/story-of-stuff/

  • What stands out for students in this video?
  • What did they learn about the effects of consumerism?

Revisit questions asking students to appraise the cost to the environment of their lifestyle and evaluate the sustainability of this practice.

  • How has student thinking changed as a result of the information learned in the video?
  • What answers are different, why?

Continue to link inquiry findings to these questions.

  • What are the impacts of supporting my life-style on (my local community and) the global community?
  • What are my responsibilities regarding the impacts of my life-style as a global citizen?
    • What might be another perspective on the effects of globalization?
    • What is the cost of globalization?
    • How do our lifestyle choices contribute to globalization?

Refer back to the survey results that examined the impact of globalization.  Have students choose one item of interest and research the impact of providing these goods to people in the country of origin.

  • How might students in the country of origin be impacted by providing these goods for students in Canada?
  • How might students in the countries of origin view the effects of globalization? Explain your thinking.
  • What would be/might be the impact of globalization on the common good in the country of origin?
  • How sustainable is this practice of providing these goods to you to the country of origin?

Students may not be able to answer all the questions about the impact on students in countries of origin but it is important to have them begin to think about this. Connect back to essential questions about how you influence others.  Post student thoughts and continue to revisit to note how thinking has changed.

Students will extend their thinking about their life-styles and consider the impact of their life-style on Pacific Rim/supplier communities.

Students are invited to think about the effects of providing goods to Canadian citizens from the perspective of the countries providing the goods.

See appendix for graphic organizer to support student research.

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT…

This section introduces the concepts and helps teachers gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and allow students to think about and talk about.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific and incidental teaching required to explore these outcomes. Vocabulary is introduced and noted here.  This section frames the “we do” portion of the lesson where teachers guide the initial structure of the inquiry.

Students have been learning about personal decision making in health and the importance of obtaining relevant, accurate information to support their decisions.  These introductory questions ask them to think about how history, beliefs, and our environment affect past and present decisions.  Students will ultimately consider the quality of the decisions made by a country for its citizens.

Inquiry

How have the experiences of Canada in the past affected the Canada we live in now?

  • How did we get the country we have today? How did history and historical events influence the country we have?  How did our environment influence the country we have?  Why do people live where they live?

In this inquiry, students will consider the influences on their decision-making and analyze the effects of decisions on the development of the country.  The inquiry begins with examination of the effect of geographic and historical events, natural and man-made, on people and cultures.  Students will consider where people choose to live – population distribution, and the influence of history and geography on economic and governmental decisions.

For all areas of research, students are encouraged to use a variety of maps (physical, political, geographical, and population) in their research and in their presentations.

  • What impact does past experience have on your decision-making?
    • How important is understanding history to understanding the reasons for current decisions?
    • What can history teach us about why we think the way we do?
    • Whose history is represented?
  • What is the relationship between the natural environment/geography and your activities/ life-style choices?
    • How much do you think about the environment?
    • Are you a user or protector of the environment? Give examples to support your thinking.
    • How often does the environment affect what you do?
This inquiry is broken into a number of smaller inquiries that when examined together will begin to show themes.  Teachers are encouraged to use the jigsaw research strategy: students’ research specific questions, present their findings in a variety of ways, examine information for answers to overarching essential questions.

Teachers should also continue to help students note themes that are surfacing.

Students are comparing the Canadian experiences to countries bordering the Pacific Rim and northern circumpolar countries.  In some cases, teachers may wish to begin with the exploration of Canada’s experiences so that any misunderstandings about what student will be asked to research could be clarified.   Have students apply their understandings of terminology and concepts by researching selected countries in the Pacific Rim and northern circumpolar countries.  

Use a Before, During, and After chart to note changes in students’ thinking from the beginning to the end of the inquiry.

  • How does the natural environment/geography affect the development of society/our country?
    • How much does the environment affect your actions?
    • What is the relationship of First Nations people to the environment? How did their connection to the environment impact their life-style choices?
      • Were First Nations users or protectors of their environment? Give examples to support your thinking.
    • What role did the environment and geography play in developing Canada? Other countries?
      • Identify specific Pacific Rim cultures to research and then compare their cultural responses to the environment.
    • How did history influence the development of our country?
      • How does history impact the present?
      • What can history teach us about why we think the way we do?
      • How important is understanding history to understanding current decisions?
      • What does it take to make a change?

Have students examine a map of Saskatchewan to identify where people live.

 

Canadian Natural Catastrophes for Research

These sites give some information on natural catastrophes from which teachers may choose to have students research.

For the current perspectives research consider Canada and specific countries bordering the Pacific Rim.  Students are becoming experts on one country and continue to add to their understanding of their respective country.

See appendix for organizers to support student research.

Why do people live where they live?

  • Have students brainstorm answers. Analyze and look for categories within their responses i.e. social environments, cultural interactions, population dynamics
    • What causes population to increase or decrease in a particular area?
    • What creates changes in population composition/makeup?
  • Have students develop some hypotheses. Establish link between economic development, geography, and technology.
  • Begin with Canada to make sure students understand what they will be researching. Then have students choose a Pacific Rim and circumpolar countries.
  • Choose a specific area of Canada, i.e. Western Canada, Central Canada, Eastern Canada, Northern Canada, and have students find the answers to the following for their areas. Create a timeline of the identified events to explore the impact of technology on the population growth of the area.

Examine and identify the impact of:

  • the historical events that had an impact on the formation of your specific area of the country.
  • the natural or human catastrophes in the specific area.
  • For each:
    • outline the history of human habitation of the region
    • identify location, affected populations, and describe impact
    • Present information on the appropriate maps

 

  • What is the impact of these historical event(s) on the present?

Try to develop summary statements.

This part of the inquiry asks students to consider the negative effects of European contact on a variety of peoples living in Canada and other countries bordering the Pacific Rim.
Students are continuing to respond to the question:

What is the impact of these historical event(s) on the present?

  • What role did physical environments/geography play in shaping the following political events?
    • Sovereignty over the North-West Passage (Canada)
    • Western intervention in other countries
    • Political alliances
    • Adoption of a system of government
  • What is the impact of these historical event(s) on the present?

Analyze the influence of European contact on:

  • TheAboriginal /indigenous peoples of Canada, Mexico, and Australia specifically,
    • First Nations children in Canada and Australia abducted from their homes to attend residential schools
  • The Acadian deportation
  • The treatment of European immigrants during WWI
  • The internment of Japanese-Canadians in WW2

Assess the effects of relocations and deportations of affected groups.

 

  • What did the Europeans believe about the people in your research?
  • What was the result of their beliefs on the identified people?

What is the impact of these historical event(s) on the present?

This part of the inquiry asks students to consider the impact of geography on the development of Canada’s economic system and then in other countries bordering the Pacific Rim.
Students are continuing to respond to the question:

What is the impact of these historical event(s) on the present?

Current/present perspectives

Role of geography in shaping economic activity:

  • Economic alliances
  • Trading partners
  • Use of resources
  • Impact of the reserve system on First Nations populations
  • Explain the role of barter and trade and sharing
  • Describe examples and role play the practices
  • Present the experiences of Elders and senior citizens
  • Rate the sustainability of economies based on:
    • barter
    • trade
    • sharing
  • Which is preferable in the student’s mind?
  • Why do the current political and economic relationships exist/work?
    • What are the benefits?
    • What are the negative effects?

APPLY AND EXTEND KNOWLEDGE

This section includes ideas to extend the inquiry or apply concepts explored. This section may also include additional reflective questions to promote student connection to the topic.  This forms the “You do” section – extend thinking beyond the classroom discussions and inquiry experiences.  Pose additional reflective questions that have been raised to encourage critical and creative thinking.
This section can also be used to extend the thinking of those students who enjoy larger challenges.
Climate Change

  • What is Canada’s position with respect to climate change?
  • What are the positions with respect to climate change of students’ specific Pacific Rim and northern circumpolar countries?
  • What are the similarities in positions? What are the differences?  What accounts for those differences?
  • Have students debate the merits of specific positions of a chosen country.

EVIDENCE OF LEARNING

This section suggests ways in which students may demonstrate their understanding.  Ideal demonstrations will be in authentic performance tasks.  Each citizenship study may have its own smaller assessment piece or be compiled to support one larger performance task assessment.  Assessment pieces vary, but should allow students to demonstrate their understanding in a variety of ways.

The forms of assessment of the learning will vary but should allow students to demonstrate their learning and understanding in a variety of ways.

Inquiry 1

Essential Questions

  • How do you influence others?
    • What is the impact of those influences: positive or negative?
    • Is it possible to control the impact of those influences?
    • What influences does our lifestyle create?
      • on people?
      • on the world?
    • What are the impacts of supporting my life-style on (my local community and) the global community?
    • What are my responsibilities regarding the impacts of my lifestyle as a global citizen?
      • What might be another perspective on the effects of globalization?
      • What is the cost of globalization?
      • How do our lifestyle choices contribute to globalization?
    • How does globalization affect citizens in Canada, northern circumpolar and Pacific Rim countries?
      • What are the benefits? What are the concerns? (Articulate and interpret the main arguments for and against globalization.)
      • What accounts for the differences in the effects of globalization?
      • What is my responsibility as a global citizen to deal with the effects of globalization?

Have a debate with the students.  One group is for globalization and the other is against globalization.  Have students develop positive statements and opposing statements based on their research.

Any of the graphic organizers students have completed in these inquiries can provide evidence of Learning and Understanding.

See appendix for additional assessment suggestions.

Inquiry 2

Students should be able demonstrate an understanding of:

  1. How geography can affect a region, economically and socially.
  2. How historical events can affect a region and its people.

 What is the relationship between historical events, the environment, and where people live?  

  • Pick a significant historic and/or environmental event that had a significant impact on the development of the Canada that we have today and show why you think it was important.
  • Pick an historic and/or environmental event that had a significant impact on the global trading patterns of today and tell why you think it was important.

STUDENT CITIZENSHIP JOURNAL OPPORTUNITIES

Students will continue to explore their understanding of their role as a Canadian citizen and reflect on their perspective in an Ongoing Journal. A specific journal should be set aside for the reflections on being a Canadian citizen. Art should be included throughout the journal; some to accompany the journal entry and some that are random drawings and sketching.

Students are keeping a Citizenship Journal to reflect upon their developing views of citizenship.  This section provides prompts for student journals.  Students are invited to choose one that interests them.  Encourage students to include a variety of representation methods including artwork, drawings, and sketches. 

Prompts are suggestions that may or may not be used.  Students are encouraged to develop their own prompts and write on any topic they wish.  Students may respond to any of the essential questions.

  • Many citizens of Canada have access to a number of luxuries not seen by students in other countries. As a “global citizen” how do you feel about the inequities that maintaining your lifestyle creates?“Canada must acknowledge its past history of shameful treatment of Indigenous peoples,” said Inuk leader John Amagoalik. “It must acknowledge its racist legacy. It should not only acknowledge these facts, but also take steps to make sure that the country’s history books reflect these realities.”
  • What is your response to this statement?“Healing is a gradual process–the legacy of residential schools is still very much alive in our cities and communities and affects Indigenous and non-Indigenous Canadians alike.” Legacy of Hope website
  • What would you tell your Member of Parliament to do to address the ongoing issues created by residential schools?
  • What suggestions do you have for improvement?

Part C: Lifelong Learning Citizens Resources

LESSON RESOURCES

All websites accessed in November 2017.

Natural Disasters

Residential School Information

CROSS CURRICULAR CONNECTIONS

Language Arts

Themes

  • Personal and Philosophical: Students will reflect upon:
    • self-image and self-esteem; and,
    • self and life, and on their beliefs and values and those of their society.
  • Social, Cultural, and Historical: Students will
    • look outward and examine their relationships with others, their community, and that of the world; and,
    • consider the historical context.
  • Environmental and Technological: Students will:
    • explore the elements of the natural and constructed world and the role of technology and related developments in their society.
  • Communicative: Students will:
    • consider the role of communication in their lives and the ideas and technologies that help people become effective communicators.

Treaty Education

  • TR7: Analyze to what extent each of the signatories to treaty meets their respective obligations.
  • SI7: Examine Oral Tradition as a valid way of preserving accounts of what transpired and what was intended by entering into treaty.
  • HC7: Examine the Indian Act, including its amendments, and explore the effects it has on the lives of First Nations.
  • TPP7: Investigate the impact of Bill C31 on the equality of genders under the Indian Act.

Health

Understanding, Skills, and Confidences (USC)

  • USC7.4 Demonstrate a personalized and coherent understanding of the importance of nurturing harmony in relationships (with self, others, and the environment), and apply effective strategies to re/establish harmony when conflict arises.
  • USC7.7 Investigate and express an understanding of possible discrepancies in morals (e.g., beliefs, ethics, virtues, understanding of right/wrong) that may determine and/or affect the commitment to the well-being of self, family, community, and the environment.

Science

Life Science: Interactions within Ecosystems (IE)

  • IE7.1 Relate key aspects of Indigenous knowledge to their understanding of ecosystems. [CP]
  • IE7.2 Observe, illustrate, and analyze living organisms within local ecosystems as part of interconnected food webs, populations, and communities. [SI]
  • IE7.4 Analyze how ecosystems change in response to natural and human influences, and propose actions to reduce the impact of human behaviour on a specific ecosystem. [DM, CP]

Earth and Space Science: Earth’s Crust and Resources (EC)

  • EC7.1 Analyze societal and environmental impacts of historical and current catastrophic geological events, and scientific understanding of movements and forces within Earth’s crust. [SI]
  • EC7.2 Identify locations and processes used to extract Earth’s geological resources and examine the impacts of those locations and processes on society and the environment. [SI, DM, CP]
  • EC7.3 Investigate the characteristics and formation of the surface geology of Saskatchewan, including soil, and identify correlations between surface geology and past, present, and possible future land uses. [DM, SI]

FURTHER INVESTIGATION SUGGESTIONS

  • Students will investigate and examine an historical event that took place in the Pacific Rim or Circumpolar countries that has affected them both physically and socially. They will use a selected type of media to present their work.
    • Rana factory collapse in Bangladesh
    • Earthquake in Nepal
  • Have students follow an economic and environmental issues or event that arises between Canada and Pacific Rim countries.
  • Write a letter to elected officials (municipal, provincial, parliamentary). Ask what they are doing about Aboriginal issues and ask them to work to restore funding to community-based initiatives that deal with the intergenerational impacts of residential schools.

GLOSSARY

The Following definitions are found at:   Vocabulary.com (unless indicated otherwise)

“Text from Vocabulary.com, Copyright ©1998-2016 Thinkmap, Inc.  All rights reserved.”

 

Common Good – the good of a community

“Common good, that which benefits society as a whole, in contrast to the private good of individuals and sections of society.

From the era of the ancient Greek city-states through contemporary political philosophy, the idea of the common good has pointed toward the possibility that certain goods, such as security and justice, can be achieved only through citizenship, collective action, and active participation in the public realm of politics and public service. In effect, the notion of the common good is a denial that society is and should be composed of atomized individuals living in isolation from one another. Instead, its proponents have asserted that people can and should live their lives as citizens deeply embedded in social relationships.”   (http://www.britannica.com)

Ecological

Anything ecological relates to the science of ecology, which is the study of how living things and the environment do their thing.

Eg. If you’re interested in issues like preserving rain forests, saving endangered species, and keeping drinking water safe, you’re interested in ecological issues.  Ecological things have to do with how plants and animals relate to each other, in good and bad ways, in specific environments-from the impact of floods on river insects to how smog harms humans.  Just about anything people do has an ecological impact – for better or worse.

Ethnocide

Ethnocide refers to the deliberate attempt to eradicate the culture or way of life of a people. . . . Ethnocide depends on the use of political power to force relatively powerless people to give up their culture and is therefore characteristic of colonial or other situations where coercion can be applied. . . . The term is sometimes used to refer to any process or policy that results in the disappearance of a people’s culture.

The Dictionary of Anthropology (1997).

Edited by Thomas Barfield. Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Globalization

The process of ideas, products, and people moving around the planet with greater ease and efficiency. Globalization takes advantage of cheaper labor in less developed nations but increases free trade between nations and the free flow of capital.

Eg. Globalization has transcended its traditionally economic concept to be used in many different ways now. The globalization of Barbie began with the opening of a Barbie boutique in Beijing. Use globalization anytime a trend spreads beyond its expected boundaries, reaches beyond expected populations. “At your high school, girls started a trend of wearing hard hats to school every day. Your cousin in Austria mentions girls doing it there. You can joke that the trend has ‘gone global.'”

Stewardship

Stewardship means the management or care of something, particularly the kind that works. If your company is making money, there’s probably been careful stewardship — or, a lot of luck.

Eg.  The sphere or responsibility of a steward (as in a manager or administrator), stewardship is often used to mean “the care, handling and management of resources.” Your school requires stewardship to make sure its supplies aren’t stretched. Your clean water may be thanks to the stewardship of an environmental office. Though there is a steward on a ship to handle food and supplies, the ship in stewardship is not a seagoing vessel; it’s just a suffix.

Social Environment Definition

Human social environments include the immediate physical surroundings, the social relationships, and cultural backgrounds within which a specific group of people function and interact.  Also included in social environments are historical, social and power relations that have been established over time.  When trying to understand social environments it is important to think about households, family or kinship networks, neighbourhoods, towns, cities, and regions.  Social environments consider the relationships that exist between these different environments and the changes in those relationships.

More information can be found in the research article, A Definition of “Social Environment” by Elizabeth Barnett, PhD and Michele Casper, PhD located at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1446600/pdf/11249033.pdf .

Dictionary.com describes social environment as the environment that humans develop rather than the environment created by nature or natural environment.  It includes society as a whole and how individuals function and interact with one another.

Social environment also includes the norms, standards, or rules by which people interact with one another.  Social environments change as a person grows and expands their social interactions.

More information can be found at

http://www.sociologydiscussion.com/society/social-environment-meaning-concept-and-features/2445

Sustainable (adj.) (vocabulary.com)

If something is sustainable, than it can be maintained or continued. A 5-minute mile pace probably isn’t sustainable for anyone other than Olympic marathon runners.

These days this adjective is often used to describe something that has a low long-term effect on the environment, like “sustainable agriculture” — a method of farming that doesn’t ravage the land, deplete resources permanently or produce a great deal of pollution. Break down the word into two parts, sustain and able, to visualize and remember that you’re able to sustain something sustainable.

Sustainability

The property of being sustainable.

“Sustain” means to last over time, so sustainability is the ability of something to last. As a civilization, we are concerned about the sustainability of our planet.

Sustainability became a big idea after people began to realize that we were using up our natural resources, so you’re most likely to come across the word when you’re reading about recycling and energy use. If you hear someone talking about sustainability in the context of energy, they’re probably talking about alternatives to oil or coal — both of which will run out in the future. A sustainable source of energy is something that’s always there — like water or wind.

Opinion

Who wouldn’t want the job of opinion writer for a newspaper. You get paid to sit around and tell people how you feel about things. And you know lots of people have no shortage of opinions.

An opinion is a belief or attitude about something that isn’t necessarily based on facts. You may have an opinion about Gwyneth Paltrow that I don’t share. There’s no way to prove who’s right and who’s wrong. Those are our thoughts about her, and that’s the way it is.

GRADE 7 CITIZENSHIP STUDIES SELF, COMMUNITY, AND PLACE

Part A: Curricular Connections and Background

BROAD AREA OF CITIZENSHIP

Citizens with a Strong Sense of Self, Community, and Place examine and investigate their connectedness to community, the natural environment and consider their place and responsibilities as a global citizen.  They do this by reflecting upon the choices they make and the impact of those choices on self and others and their community both near and far.  Being a member of any community brings with it certain rights; however, it also brings with it certain responsibilities to protect those rights and privileges.  Students are learning to value their connection as individuals and members of a community to its place and reflect upon their actions in maintaining and nurturing the relationships between these three components of their environment.

This area of citizenship focuses on the student using critical thinking skills in order to better understand, the relationship between geography, resources, culture and historical events.

OVERVIEW AND DESIRED RESULTS OF CITIZENSHIP STUDY

A person’s “sense of place” develops through experience and knowledge of the history; geography and geology of an area; the legends of a place; and, a sense of the land and its history after living there for a time. Developing a sense of place helps students identify with their region and with each other. A strong sense of place can lead to more sensitive stewardship of our cultural history and natural environment.

Students have been trying to understand the range of power and governance within their own country.  As their understanding of the forms of power develop, students begin to compare and contrast those structures and processes operating within Canada with those operating within Pacific Rim countries and northern circumpolar regions.  Students will continue to explore the relationship that citizens have with the environment; examine the impact of cultural and personal beliefs on how the environment is used; and, consider their responsibilities as stewards of the environment.  Students further explore the variance in the distribution of power and privilege at a global level, and reflect upon their role as a Canadian citizen in contributing to the status quo.  Through examination of environmental and economic decisions at local, national, and global levels, students consider the impact of disparity between cultures and countries.  Opportunities to discuss the importance of geography, power and governance, in both Canada and Pacific Rim countries is the focus of this area of study.

Students are asked to use many different types of maps as they research identified issues.  Knowledge of the geographic features, specific resource, population cluster and economic relationships will help the students to draw their own understandings and perspectives.

ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS OF CITIZENSHIP STUDY

Citizens consider their identity within Canada and globally.

Students will understand that:

  • History and current events are understood through diverse historical perspectives.
  • Democracy requires discussion and consideration of alternate points of view in order to find a balance between individual perspectives.
  • Citizens value the needs of the collective common good and consider how their actions impact the collective well-being.
  • Canadian multi-cultural policies challenge citizenship tenets and require consideration of multiple perspectives.
  • Canada’s history includes First Nations, Métis, and Inuit governance and perspectives and each have contributed to Canadian identity.
  • Decision-making is a complex process with far-reaching impacts.
  • Engaged citizens strive to be knowledgeable, uphold their rights, and act on their responsibilities.
  • Enduring understandings are the big ideas that stimulate thinking, guide the inquiry and are linked to outcomes.
  • Essential questions point to the “big ideas” in the inquiry and should be considered and reconsidered as the inquiry progresses.
  • Answers to these questions form the evidence of learning at the end of study.

KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL DEVELOPMENT

Students will develop their ability to:

  • Expand their sense of identity with respect to local, regional, provincial, national, and global diversities.
  • Exhibit an awareness and understanding of natural environmental issues on a local, national, and global level.
  • Model being active and responsible citizens, including respect for self, others, and the environment.

Students will continue to develop skills for:

  • Examining issues from a variety of perspectives.
  • Looking for alternate points of view.

Students will use their independent learning to:

  • Develop skills for treating self and others with respect.
  • Demonstrate empathy in social situations.
  • Continually reassess where they belong (changing contexts/roles and expectations) i.e. School, family, community.
  • Reflect upon the impact of their choices.

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS

Questions:

  • What is government’s responsibility to sustain and address common good?
  • What is the appropriate citizenship response to the marginalization witnessed daily?
  • What is the relationship between the natural environment and the development of society?
  • What responsibility do you have to balance personal needs with the community’s (global) needs?
  • What is the power and responsibility of the individual to make a difference in the world?
  • What role does empathy play in citizenship?
Essential Questions are open-ended questions that are continually revisited, encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study, form the evidence of understanding and frame the assessment at the end of the study.

CURRICULUM OUTCOMES AND INDICATORS

Student friendly outcomes should be posted throughout the inquiry and continually referenced so the goals of the learning are clearly available to students.

(Sask. Curriculum / Student Friendly)

Outcome: DR7.2

Appraise the impact of human habitation on the natural environment in Canada, and in a selection of Pacific Rim and northern circumpolar countries. / Students will assess how humans affect the natural environment in Canada and chosen Pacific Rim and Northern circumpolar countries.

Indicators:

  • Identify the influence of physical features such as water bodies, topography, and natural resources on the location of people in Pacific and northern Canada (including the traditional homelands of indigenous peoples) and in a selection of Pacific Rim and circumpolar countries.
    • Examine the effects of humans and their technology on the natural environment in Canada, and in a selection of Pacific Rim and circumpolar countries, including the consequences for indigenous peoples who inhabit those regions (e.g., over harvesting of salmon fishery, increased incidence of severe weather, influence of logging industry on the natural world and ecosystems, effects of deforestation and coral removal, and efforts to reclaim shorelines and restore the natural barriers).
    • Explore situations where changes in the environment, induced naturally or by humans, have resulted in the relocation of peoples in Canada, and in a selection of Pacific Rim and circumpolar countries, including indigenous peoples who inhabit those regions. Explain the reasons for the relocation and its consequences.
    • Trace examples of current effects of climate change on the movement of peoples (e.g., melting of the polar icecap and greater accessibility to the North-West Passage and the oil underneath) and hypothesize about the potential effects of climate change on the movement of peoples in the future.
    • Explore the Treaty relationship and the values and beliefs associated with sharing the land.

Outcome: RW7.2

Investigate the influence of resources upon economic conditions of peoples in circumpolar and Pacific Rim countries. / Students will explore how resources can influence an economy in a circumpolar and Pacific Rim Countries.

Indicators:

  • Identify the locations of natural resources of circumpolar and Pacific Rim countries using appropriate maps, and analyze the impact of the resources on local communities.
  • Formulate a definition of a natural resource, and differentiate between renewable and non-renewable resources.
  • Differentiate between primary, secondary, and tertiary industry.
  • Correlate the presence of resources and industries to the gross national product of circumpolar and Pacific Rim countries.
  • Draw conclusions about the standard of living of people in Pacific Rim and circumpolar countries using material wealth measures (gross national product, gross domestic product) and non-material measures (the quality of life index, happiness index).

 

 

Outcome: RW7.3

Assess the ecological stewardship of economies of Canada and the circumpolar and Pacific Rim countries.  Responsibility for environmental quality shared by all those who actions impact the environment. / How well do Canada, circumpolar and Pacific Rim countries do in maintaining environmental stewardship?

Indicators:

  • Research and illustrate the origins and current meanings of the words “steward” and “stewardship”.
  • Define the word “sustainable”, and discriminate between the concepts of sustainable and unsustainable as they apply to resources and industry.
  • Examine the sustainability of the economies of a selection of circumpolar and Pacific Rim countries, and propose practices which might increase the level of sustainability.

Outcome DR7.1

Analyze and use various types of maps (that provide differing perspectives and information for differing purposes) in order to situate current issues in Canada, and in a selection of Pacific Rim and northern circumpolar countries.

Part B: Learning Plan

Throughout the inquiries, students are encouraged to analyze and use different types of maps to situate current issues in Canada, and selected Pacific Rim and northern circumpolar countries. (DR7.1)

This allows students to use maps in authentic learning experiences.

Students will examine and evaluate:

  • The effects and impact of human habitation on the natural environment;
  • How the use of resources impacts the economy of countries; and,
  • The responsibility citizens have toward ecological stewardship of a country’s economy.

QUESTIONS TO GUIDE INQUIRY

Essential questions are posted and discussed with students at the start of the exploration of study. These open-ended questions are continually revisited; encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study; form the evidence of understanding; and, frame the assessment at the end of the unit of study. Guiding questions are posed to support student thinking as they explore the answers to the larger overarching questions.

Teachers may want to consider putting the questions into a “Before, During, After” chart to note the changes in students’ thinking as a result of the inquiries.

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • What is government’s responsibility to sustain and address common good?
    • What is common good? Is it constant?
    • Does the idea of common good change depending on the culture, community?
  • What is the appropriate citizenship response to the marginalization we witness daily?
    • How do we contribute to marginalization?
  • What is the relationship between the natural environment and the development of society?
    • What impact does your environment and your relationship with the land have on the development of your personal beliefs and values?
    • Does your environment and where you live/sense of place affect how your cultural and social behaviours develop?
  • What responsibility do you have to balance personal needs with the global community’s needs?
    • How much control do you have over the impact of your actions/decisions?
    • As a global citizen, what are your responsibilities regarding the impacts of your lifestyle as a global citizen?
  • What role does empathy play in citizenship?
    • What is the power and responsibility of the individual to make a difference in the world

CONNECT AND FOCUS STUDENTS

This section helps teachers gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and allow students to think about and talk about them.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific and incidental teaching required.  Record students’ current thinking for reflection throughout inquiry.
Two options are presented to have students begin to connect to this inquiry.  One uses local context as a means of scaffolding student thinking.

The other one explores the Happiness Index and presents a global perspective to scaffold student thinking about their relationship with the environment.

Teachers may also choose to address the Happiness Index under the Applying and Extending Thinking section.

Happy Planet Index http://www.happyplanetindex.org/
TED Talks Nic Marks – The Happy Planet Index – http://www.ted.com/talks/nic_marks_the_happy_planet_index
World Happiness Report – http://worldhappiness.report/ed/2017/
See appendix for graphic organizers on the Happiness Index research.

Other indexes for research are the OECD Better Life Index

OECD Better Life Index – http://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/

Inquiry: How connected are we to our environment?  Why do we live where we do?

What are the consequences of our lifestyle choices: on our environment, on the global community, especially marginalized people; and, on our happiness?

  • What is the relationship between the natural environment and the development of society?
  • How does the environment and your relationship with the land impact your personal beliefs and values?
  • How does the environment and your relationship with the land affect how your cultural and social behaviours develop?
  • How does the environment and your relationship with the land affect how the community has developed? Where people choose to live?

Gather students’ thoughts and post for later reflection.  Students should be able to defend their thinking with examples from their experiences, either real-life or reading that they have done.

Using the local community, have students identify where people choose to live in the community.  Note the location of geographical features, i.e. presence of water bodies, rivers, lakes, high land and where people live, where businesses and industries are located.

What conclusions are students drawing about the connection between the environment and the development of society?

Does your relationship with the environment impact your happiness?  What makes you happy?  Do you think Canada is happy?  Is it a good place to live?  How do you measure happiness?

 

Happiness Index

Students have explored the differences between concepts of wealth.  The HPI shows the differences in the ways that countries determine happiness and in some aspects, success.

The Happy Planet Index (HPI) is an index of human well-being and environmental impact.  It was introduced by the New Economics Foundation (NEF) in July 2006 and challenges current thinking about what makes people happy. It uses global data on life expectancy, well-being and the country’s ecological footprint to make its calculations. The index is weighted to give higher scores to nations with lower ecological footprints.

The HPI is based on general principles that most people want to live long and fulfilling lives, and the country which is doing the best is the one that allows its citizens to do so without infringing on the opportunity of future people and people in other countries to do the same.

http://happyplanetindex.org/about/

Have students watch the TED Talk on the Happy Planet Index.

  • What were the important criteria for happiness?
  • How much do those things matter to students? Have student rate criteria in terms of most important to least important
  • What are students’ thoughts on the validity of the Happy Planet Index?
DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING AND EXTENDING THINKING
This section provides opportunities to extend the learning of students.  Outcomes and indicators have been grouped together to add layers to understandings.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities.  It is also important to reflect on their thinking to note how their thinking changes as new information is added to their experiences.

(DR7.2 Students will study the impact of humans on the natural environment in Canada and chosen Pacific Rim and Northern circumpolar countries.)

This inquiry is broken into a number of smaller sections.  Answers that students find are collated and examined in layers.   Understanding may emerge gradually.  It is critical that teachers help students note the themes that are emerging and ask students to think about the reasons for what they are learning.
Inquiry:  How does geography – physical features and location of resources – affect where we choose to live in a country?

For all of these inquiries have students plot their findings on a large map so they can begin to see patterns.

Beginning with Canada and then within your chosen country identify:

  • The location of the following physical features:
    • water bodies
    • topography
    • natural resources
    • the areas where most of the population lives

What themes are emerging for students regarding where people live?

  • Where the Indigenous people live.
    • Where are their traditional homelands?
    • Are they still in their traditional homeland – why or why not?
    • Do the Indigenous people have any signed treaties or agreements regarding the land?
    • How are those treaties or agreements honoured?

As a class determine what patterns and themes are emerging.  Be sure to explain your thinking.  Why is it important to know this information?

For all areas of study in Grade 7 students will be comparing the Canadian experiences to countries bordering the Pacific Rim and northern circumpolar countries.  For these inquiries it is suggested that teachers lead the entire class to examine Canada’s experiences first so that teachers can work with the class as a whole and clarify any misunderstandings.   Then students can apply their understandings of terminology and concepts by researching selected countries in the Pacific Rim and northern circumpolar countries.
Jigsaw Research and Study Process

Divide class into groups and have each group choose a specific country to learn about and present to class.  Each group must find out the information in the frameworks and inquiries posed below. Teachers are encouraged to identify specific countries and have students study those same countries repeatedly so that students can gain a stronger understanding of the issues facing the citizens of those countries and diversity of solutions of those countries.  At the end of the studies the students will be experts on a particular country and will share their knowledge with their classmates.

Encourage students to present information learned in a variety of modes including speaking, writing, drama, multimedia, etc. so that all students have an entrance point for demonstrating their learning and understanding.

Inquiry:  How have humans – their lifestyle, use of resources and technologies -impacted the natural environments?  What have been the consequences of their choices?

In this inquiry, students are asked to think about the effects of the use of resources – positive and negative – on the country and on the environment.

Within the larger map identify:

  • The locations of resources within the respective countries
  • Determine whether resources are renewable or non-renewable resources and make connections to the wealth of the country.

Have students begin to see patterns between the presence of resources and industries and the economy or gross national product of a country.   Use material wealth measures (gross national product, gross domestic product) and non-material measures (the quality of life index, happiness index).

  • What conclusions are students making about the standard of living of people in Pacific Rim and circumpolar countries?
As students present their information about the countries, begin to plot locations on a world map for reference so that students can begin to see patterns within Canada and the researched countries.
Think about… Talk about… may be done individually, in research groups, or as an entire class.  The independence level of the class will determine the best practice.

These questions require students to make inferences.  Allow students to give their answers and explain their thinking.  Help students to make connections to previous learning as needed.  As student thinking changes have students note how their thinking has changed and why.

Country Resources: Consideration and examination of wealth and sustainability

Have students use the graphic organizer in the appendix to support their research.

For your respective country choose a predominant resource that contributes economically to the country and identify:

  • The kind of industry it generates and the primary consumer.
  • How it is processed/produced.

These are big concepts connected to the enduring understandings.   Teachers may choose to use student responses as Evidence of Understanding.

  • Level of economic contribution.
    • e. a primary, secondary, or tertiary contributor to the country’s wealth or gross national product
  • How it is distributed to or sold to international connections.
  • The economic effects that using/producing/processing/selling that resource brings to the country.
  • The social effects that using/producing/processing/selling that resource brings to the country.
  • The environmental effects that using/producing/processing/selling that resource brings to the country.

 

  • How sustainable is the continued production/processing of that resource?
  • What changes would students propose to increase the level of sustainability?
  • What kind of an environmental steward is the researched country? Justify your thinking.

After the groups have made their presentations, as a class, determine what patterns and themes are emerging.  Chart both positive and negative effects.  Develop some summary statements that show how the use of resources within that county has impacted the country.

Teachers may choose to use student responses as Evidence of Understanding.
Essential Questions

  • What are the impacts of supporting my lifestyle on the global community?
  • What responsibility do you have to balance personal needs with the global community’s needs?
  • What role does empathy play in citizenship?
  • What would students say are the consequences of the choices made by the use and development of the resource(s)?
  • How would students describe the “standard of living” in the various countries?
  • What would students say has been the impact on the common good of the country of the development of the resource?
  • Are the economic choices sustainable? Explain your thinking.

Poll the students to see if they have used any of the products identified in the resources inquiry?  If so these resources/products are part of the globalization impacts from which students benefit.  As Lifelong Learning Citizens students were asked to consider the impact of their choice of lifestyle on other countries.

Students are invited to think about the effects of providing goods to Canadian citizens from the perspective of the countries providing the goods.

  • How might students in the country of origin be impacted by providing these goods for students in Canada?
  • Would students in the countries of origin view the effects of globalization the same way? Explain your thinking.
  • What would be/might be the impact on the common good in the country of origin?
Students have been learning about how geography impacts the development of society and how society uses resources to live.  This inquiry asks students to consider the consequences of lifestyle choices with respect to climate change and how well the environment is respected. 
Revisit the Essential Questions.

  • Has student thinking changed?
  • What information caused the change in thinking?

What have been the consequences of our lifestyle choices?  How sustainable are these consequences?

Using the jigsaw strategy assign groups of students the following areas to find information to the following questions:

What is climate change? 

  • Have students develop a definition and give examples of climate change.

What countries are impacted by climate change?

  • Identify countries within the Pacific Rim and Northern Circumpolar countries that are impacted by climate change.
  • Identify the impact and what the country has done to address the situation

What are the global effects of climate change?

  • Trace examples of current effects of climate change on the movement of peoples (e.g., melting of the polar icecap and greater accessibility to the North-West Passage and the oil underneath)
  • Hypothesize about the potential effects of climate change on the movement of peoples in the future.
This inquiry has students consider the inequities of power and the effects of lifestyle choices on marginalized people, often the Indigenous people of a country.

Students have better understanding of things with which they are familiar. For this reason, teachers may choose to have students who are more concrete thinkers, research issues within Canada.  Students who enjoy challenges and more abstract thinking may choose to research Pan Pacific countries 

Inquiry:  What has been the impact of environmental changes on Indigenous people?

Within Canada and the researched countries identify: 

  • Areas where changes in the environment have resulted in the relocation of people within that country, e.g.
    • over harvesting of salmon fishery,
    • increased incidence of severe weather,
    • influence of logging industry on the natural world and ecosystems,
    • effects of deforestation and coral removal, and efforts to reclaim shorelines and restore the natural barriers.
  • Whether the cause was natural or caused by humans.
  • The consequences for indigenous peoples who inhabit those regions.

Read the response by Indigenous Peoples

“Free, Prior and Informed Consent Information – response by United Nations of Indigenous Peoples” (see appendix)

  • Why was there a need for this response?
  • What have been the results of this action?
  • What is the appropriate citizenship response to this marginalization?

APPLY AND EXTEND KNOWLEDGE

This section includes ideas to extend the inquiry and/or apply concepts explored. This section may also include additional reflective questions to promote student connection to the topic.  Reflective questions encourage critical and creative thinking.

Happiness Index

Extension 1

What impact do Saskatchewan industries have on the environment?  Global Community?  Are they sustainable for the environment?

  • Have students research what Saskatchewan resources are sustainable and unsustainable and create a class list.
  • Have the students come up with a list of industries that they have in their province that require sustainable or unsustainable resources and create a class list.
    • Determine the social and environmental effects the industry may have. (pollution, economy, jobs, sustainable or not, alternate ideas, wildlife)

Extension 2

Alternate means of determining Successful Countries

Does your relationship with the environment impact your happiness?  What makes you happy?  Do you think Canada is happy?  Is it a good place to live?  How do you measure happiness?

  • What are students’ thoughts on the validity of the Happy Planet Index?
  • What were Happy Planet Index’s important criteria for happiness?
  • How much do those things matter to students? Have student rate criteria in terms of most important to least important
  • What are students’ thoughts on the validity of the Happy Planet Index?

EVIDENCE OF LEARNING

This section suggests ways in which students may demonstrate their understanding.  Ideal demonstrations will be in authentic performance tasks.  Each citizenship study may have its own smaller assessment piece or be compiled to support one larger performance task assessment.  Assessment pieces vary, but should allow students to demonstrate their understanding in a variety of ways.

Assessment of the learning will vary but should allow students to demonstrate their learning and understanding in a variety of ways.

Students have been conducting several inquiries to answer the following questions:

  • What is the relationship between our environment and the development of society?
  • What are the consequences of our lifestyle choices: on our environment, on the global community, especially marginalized people; and, on our happiness?
  • How sustainable are our practices?
  • What is the appropriate response of a global citizen to our current practices?

Have students propose how they will demonstrate their response to these overarching understandings or essential questions.

STUDENT CITIZENSHIP JOURNAL OPPORTUNITIES

Students will continue to explore their understanding of their role as a Canadian citizen and reflect on their perspective in an Ongoing Journal.  Art should be included throughout the journal; some to accompany the journal entry and some that are random drawings and sketching. The journal entries are a record of the student’s thinking and should be completed with a sense of pride.

Students are keeping a Citizenship Journal to reflect upon their developing views of citizenship.  This section provides prompts for student journals.  Students are invited to choose one that interests them or propose their own.  Students are encouraged to respond using a variety of genres.

  • The Happiness Index challenges people and world leaders to think differently about the ways in which we measure happiness. What do you think of the ideas proposed in the happiness index? How would the world be different if the Happiness Index was the way success was measured?
  • What kind of an environmental steward are you? What evidence do you have to support your thinking?
  • Respond to any of the essential questions.

Part C: Self, Community, and Place Resources

Toronto Star

Sports / Hockey

NHL warns hockey’s future threatened by climate change

By: Kevin McGran Sports Reporter, Published on Wed Jul 23 2014

Retrieved from: https://www.thestar.com/sports/hockey/2014/07/23/nhl_warns_hockeys_future_threatened_by_climate_change.html

November 2017

LESSON RESOURCES

All websites were accessed November 2017.

CROSS CURRICULAR CONNECTIONS

Language Arts

Themes

  • Personal and Philosophical: Students will reflect upon:
    • self-image and self-esteem; and,
    • self and life, and on their beliefs and values and those of their society.
  • Social, Cultural, and Historical: Students will
    • look outward and examine their relationships with others, their community, and that of the world; and,
    • consider the historical context.
  • Environmental and Technological: Students will:
    • explore the elements of the natural and constructed world and the role of technology and related developments in their society.
  • Communicative: Students will:
    • consider the role of communication in their lives and the ideas and technologies that help people become effective communicators.

Treaty Education

  • TR7: Analyze to what extent each of the signatories to treaty meets their respective obligations.
  • SI7: Examine Oral Tradition as a valid way of preserving accounts of what transpired and what was intended by entering into treaty.
  • HC7: Examine the Indian Act, including its amendments, and explore the effects it has on the lives of First Nations.
  • TPP7: Investigate the impact of Bill C31 on the equality of genders under the Indian Act.

Health

Understanding, Skills, and Confidences (USC)

  • USC7.4 Demonstrate a personalized and coherent understanding of the importance of nurturing harmony in relationships (with self, others, and the environment), and apply effective strategies to re/establish harmony when conflict arises.
  • USC7.7 Investigate and express an understanding of possible discrepancies in morals (e.g., beliefs, ethics, virtues, understanding of right/wrong) that may determine and/or affect the commitment to the well-being of self, family, community, and the environment.

Science

Life Science: Interactions within Ecosystems (IE)

  • IE7.1 Relate key aspects of Indigenous knowledge to their understanding of ecosystems. [CP]
  • IE7.2 Observe, illustrate, and analyze living organisms within local ecosystems as part of interconnected food webs, populations, and communities. [SI]
  • IE7.4 Analyze how ecosystems change in response to natural and human influences, and propose actions to reduce the impact of human behaviour on a specific ecosystem. [DM, CP]

Earth and Space Science: Earth’s Crust and Resources (EC)

  • EC7.1 Analyze societal and environmental impacts of historical and current catastrophic geological events, and scientific understanding of movements and forces within Earth’s crust. [SI]
  • EC7.2 Identify locations and processes used to extract Earth’s geological resources and examine the impacts of those locations and processes on society and the environment. [SI, DM, CP]
  • EC7.3 Investigate the characteristics and formation of the surface geology of Saskatchewan, including soil, and identify correlations between surface geology and past, present, and possible future land uses. [DM, SI]

FURTHER INVESTIGATION SUGGESTIONS

Suggested Extending Activities:  Application in local context.

  • Research the recycling programs in selected area in Canada and chosen Pacific Rim and Northern circumpolar countries. Do a comparison using charts, graphs etc. to show the differences.
  • Examine temperature change over the last 50 years or more in Canada, and chosen Pacific Rim and Northern circumpolar counties.
  • Have students record how much in weight they send to the landfill, or to recycle centers in one week, month etc. Then do a comparison of their results.  (graph, chart).  Discuss with students ways to reduce garbage and redo the activity to see if there is a difference.
  • Examine the impact of landfills on the natural environment. Examples could include decomposition of items (i.e. pampers, plastic), chemicals, vegetation etc.

Investigate the International links of a Saskatchewan Business

Other

  • Take a field trip to a local industry.
  • Bring in a guest speaker that has industry ties, to discuss the advantages of having industry in your community.
  • Bring in local leaders in your community to discuss stewardship.
  • Visit a seniors citizens centre and interview locals regarding changes in industries and if it has been positive or negative.

GLOSSARY

The following definitions are found at:  Vocabulary.com

“Text from Vocabulary.com, Copyright ©1998-2016 Thinkmap, Inc.  All rights reserved.”

Common Good

The good of a community.

Ecological

Anything ecological relates to the science of ecology, which is the study of how living things and the environment do their thing.

Eg.  If you’re interested in issues like preserving rain forests, saving endangered species, and keeping drinking water safe, you’re interested in ecological issues.  Ecological things have to do with how plants and animals relate to each other, in good and bad ways, in specific environments-from the impact of floods on river insects to how smog harms humans.  Just about anything people do has an ecological impact – for better or worse.

Globalization

The process of ideas, products, and people moving around the planet with greater ease and efficiency. Globalization takes advantage of cheaper labor in less developed nations but increases free trade between nations and the free flow of capital.

Eg. Globalization has transcended its traditionally economic concept to be used in many different ways now. The globalization of Barbie began with the opening of a Barbie boutique in Beijing. Use globalization anytime a trend spreads beyond its expected boundaries, reaches beyond expected populations. “At your high school, girls started a trend of wearing hard hats to school every day. Your cousin in Austria mentions girls doing it there. You can joke that the trend has ‘gone global.'”

Gross Domestic Product – GDP

The measure of an economy adopted by the United States in 1991; the total market values of goods and services produced by workers and capital within a nation’s borders during a given period (usually 1 year)

Gross National Product – GNP

Former measure of the United States economy; the total market value of goods and services produced by all citizens and capital during a given period (usually 1 yr)

Happiness Index

Leading global measure of sustainable well-being.  Tracks national well-being against resource use.

Ted Talks – Nic Marks – The Happy Planet Index

http://www.ted.com/talks/nic_marks_the_happy_planet_index

Stewardship

Stewardship means the management or care of something, particularly the kind that works. If your company is making money, there’s probably been careful stewardship — or, a lot of luck.

Eg.  The sphere or responsibility of a steward (as in a manager or administrator), stewardship is often used to mean “the care, handling and management of resources.” Your school requires stewardship to make sure its supplies aren’t stretched. Your clean water may be thanks to the stewardship of an environmental office. Though there is a steward on a ship to handle food and supplies, the ship in stewardship is not a seagoing vessel; it’s just a suffix.

Sustainable

If something is sustainable, than it can be maintained or continued. A 5-minute mile pace probably isn’t sustainable for anyone other than Olympic marathon runners.

These days this adjective is often used to describe something that has a low long-term effect on the environment, like “sustainable agriculture” — a method of farming that doesn’t ravage the land, deplete resources permanently or produce a great deal of pollution. Break down the word into two parts, sustain and able, to visualize and remember that you’re able to sustain something sustainable.

Sustainability

The property of being sustainable.

“Sustain” means to last over time, so sustainability is the ability of something to last. As a civilization, we are concerned about the sustainability of our planet.

Sustainability became a big idea after people began to realize that we were using up our natural resources, so you’re most likely to come across the word when you’re reading about recycling and energy use. If you hear someone talking about sustainability in the context of energy, they’re probably talking about alternatives to oil or coal — both of which will run out in the future. A sustainable source of energy is something that’s always there — like water or wind.

Renewable

Capable of being renewed.

Anything renewable can be replaced or has an endless supply. Renewable sources of energy don’t run out.

Since re means “again,” things that are renewable are always fresh and new: the supply can’t be used up. This word often applies to energy. Fossil fuels like oil are not renewable resources; we will run out of oil someday. Energy sources like solar and wind power are renewable, because there’s always going to be sunlight and wind. Anything renewable is going to last.

Renewable Resource

Any natural resource (as wood or solar energy) that can be replenished naturally with the passage of time.

Resources (actual and potential) supplied by nature

Non-renewable

That cannot be renewed.

Gas and oil are nonrenewable resources.

Primary (Industry)

Of first rank or importance or value; direct and immediate rather than secondary.

Primary means basically “first.” When you vote in a primary, that is the first election in a series. When a matter is of primary concern, it means it’s of first importance. Primary school is the first you go to (after nursery school, at least).

Secondary (Industry)

Being of second rank or importance or value; not direct or immediate

Something secondary is second most important. This can also refer to things that are not important at all.

If you have a primary duty, that’s what you need to do first. Secondary duties must be done next, since second is a form of the number two. You could say your secondary goal at a job is to get experience, if your main goal is to make money. Also, people will sometimes say, “This is our goal. Everything else is secondary.” That means other concerns are trivial or unimportant. Either way, secondary things never come first.

Tertiary (Industry) (adj.)

Coming in third.

Tertiary is another way of saying “third in importance,” like socializing with co-workers being a tertiary reason for getting an after-school job — less important than, first, earning money and second, gaining skills.

To correctly pronounce tertiary, say “TER-she-err-ee.” If you are the third child born in your family, don’t be tempted to call yourself the “tertiary child.” This means you are less important that your two older siblings. However, in some cases, tertiary does not have to do with ranking third — the Tertiary period marks the beginning of life for mammals, and in the United Kingdom, tertiary education means “college-level.”

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