GRADE 9 RESOURCES

The Intentional & Direct Teaching of Essential Citizenship Competencies

CITIZENSHIP STUDIES GRADE 9: ENGAGED CITIZENS

Part A

Broad Area of Citizenship

Engaged Citizens ask questions and critically examine issues.  They do this so that they can advocate for and defend rights and of a democracy on multiple levels, as appropriate.   They continue to examine issues and actions connected with ongoing national and global diversity and consider their responsibilities to protect democracy.  Students work to understand issues and actions connected with diversity, rights and responsibilities, levels of governance and think about how rules and social customs can have different impacts on people.  Students extend their exploration of how their actions could have long-term effects that can influence the physical and social environment of which they are a part.

Desired Results of Citizenship Study

Grade Nine students research and study what constitutes a society.  This year of study has students looking to the past to determine the impact of history on present day societal structuring.  Students explore the historical societies of Macedonia, Rome, England, Spain, France, and Mongolia.

Through the study of earlier societies, students analyze the impacts of empire building, territorial expansion and colonialism on various indigenous populations.  In their research, students compare the factors that shape worldviews including time, place, culture, language, religion, gender identity, socio-economic situations and education, and how these factors are expressed in daily life.

Students are also asked to consider the challenges of obtaining accurate information about societies of the past.

As students appreciate the relationship between culture, land and resources, and historical events, they are encouraged to recognize the impact of worldview, personal and cultural identities on contemporary society.

Enduring Understandings of Citizenship Study

A deep understanding of democracy is important to become an engaged citizen.  Students examine the impacts of early societies on present democracy.  They consider the history of citizen engagement in strengthening the democratic process.

Students will understand that:

  • History and current events are understood through diverse historical perspectives.
  • Democracy requires discussion and consideration of alternate points of view in order to find a balance between individual perspectives.
  • Citizens value the needs of the collective common good and consider how their actions impact the collective well-being.
  • Canadian multi-cultural policies challenge citizenship tenets and require consideration of multiple perspectives.
  • Canada’s history includes First Nations, Métis, and Inuit governance and perspectives and each have contributed to Canadian identity.
  • Decision-making is a complex process with far-reaching impacts.
  • Engaged citizens strive to be knowledgeable, uphold their rights, and act on their responsibilities.
  • Enduring understandings are the big ideas that stimulate thinking, guide the inquiry and are linked to outcomes.
  • Essential questions point to the “big ideas’ in the inquiry and should be considered and reconsidered as the inquiry progresses.
  • Answers to these questions form the evidence of learning at the end of study.

Knowledge and Skill Development

Inferences to make:

  • Everybody in a democratic process, everyone has a right to be heard.
  • Democracy strives to find a balance between individual perspectives
  • A strong democratic system enhances the value of all participants.

Students will be able to:

  • Understand the democratic process within our government.
  • Consider their personal place and responsibility in the democratic process.

Essential Questions

  • What makes democracy work?
  • How could democracy be improved?
  • What is the relationship between rights and responsibilities?
  • How do my actions influence others?  How do the actions of others influence me?
  • What is the impact of affirming multiculturalism in a democracy?
Essential Questions are open-ended questions that are continually revisited, encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study, form the evidence of understanding and frame the assessment at the end of the study.

Curriculum Outcomes and Indicators

Student friendly outcomes should be posted throughout the inquiry and continually referenced so the goals of the learning are clearly available to students.

Sask. Curriculum Outcomes: Student Friendly Outcomes

IN9.1

Explain what constitutes a society.

Indicators:

  • Relate the functions and services of institutions in the community (e.g., schools, churches, local governments, caregivers, parents, elders, traditional knowledge keepers) to the needs of the people in that community.
  • Investigate the roles of individuals in the institutions of the local community, including the expectations attached to those roles (e.g., school: student, principal, teacher, caretaker, secretary; hospital: doctor, nurse, traditional healer, receptionist, paramedic, medical technician, patient?
  • Research a list of characteristics and attributes that formulate a definition of a society.
  • Compare two different societies studied including the attributes of leaders, the roles of various individuals, cultural traditions and ceremonies and means of sustenance.
  • Apply the definition of society to one of the civilizations studied, and detail ways in which the civilization meets the criteria to be considered a society (e.g., How can Mesopotamia be called a society according to the formulated definition? Would Indigenous grouping of the plains and woodlands in North America meet the criteria?).
  • Investigate diverse historical views regarding the terms ‘primitive’ and ‘civilized’, and analyze the effect of the perceptions of the concepts on ethnocentrism in colonizers.
  • Analyze the effects of ethnocentrism on indigenous peoples.

IN9.2

Compare the factors that shape worldviews in a society, including time and place, culture, language, religion, gender identity, socio-economic situation and education.

Student Friendly: Compare factors such as time, place, culture, language, religion, gender identity, socio-economic situation and education and discuss their influence on the Canadian society of today.

Indicators:

  • Explore personal student beliefs about some contemporary issues or problems (e.g., making friends; the role of technology in daily life; affordable housing; intergenerational families; global warning; post-secondary education; participating in religious or cultural ceremonies; designer clothing; healthy food choices; drinking and driving; violence).
  • Define the concept of a worldview.
  • Hypothesize about the reasons underlying the similarities and differences between the worldview of one individual and that of another person.
  • Construct a comparison of the worldviews of the societies studied.
  • Determine reasons for the similarities and differences between the worldviews of two societies studied.
  • Illustrate the similarities and differences between a personal modern worldview and that of a society studied, and speculate why these similarities and differences occur.

IN9.3

Analyze the ways a worldview is expressed in the daily life of a society.

Student Friendly: Think of ways a worldview is shown in your everyday life.

Indicators:

  • Distinguish the worldviews represented in the literature studied.
  • Identify the architectural features which communicate the worldview of a society studied.
  • Analyze how works of art of a society studied reveal elements of that society’s worldview.
  • Examine the role of education in perpetuating the worldview of a society studied.
  • Investigate the worldview of the local community as represented through features including literature, the arts, cultural celebrations and traditions, education (including Elder’s teachings if indigenous peoples), sports and recreation, and architecture.

DR9.1

Examine the challenges involved in obtaining information about societies of the past.

Student Friendly: What are the challenges when obtaining information about societies of the past?

Indicators:

  • Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of oral accounts as sources of information about historical events.
  • Describe the role of archeology in obtaining information about societies of the past.
  • Explain various technologies used in archeology (e.g., shovels, brushes, carbon dating, GPS cartography, satellite imagery).
  • Present results obtained and techniques used in ongoing archaeological digs (e.g., Wanuskewin, Eagle Creek; Point-a-Callieres, Montreal; Pompei, Italy; Dufferin Terrace, Quebec City; Fort Temiscaming, Quebec; Ahu o rongo, Easter island).
  • Investigate the role of literature, visual arts, music, newspapers, photographs and other artifacts in obtaining information about past societies.
  • Recognize the dynamic nature of historical knowledge by identifying examples of changes occurring in the interpretation of history as a result of new information uncovered or acknowledged.

DR9.2

Synthesize the significance of key historical events in societies studied.

Student Friendly: Select and represent key historical events in Canadian society and other societies studied.

Indicators:

  • Represent in a timeline the key historical events in the societies studied.
  • Relate the origins and the repercussions of an event in the history of the societies studied.
  • Judge the importance of an event in the history of the societies studied to the people in the society in historical context as well as the current era.

 

 

DR9.4

Determine the influence of societies of the past on contemporary life in Canada.

Student Friendly: Explain how the societies of the past influenced contemporary Canada.

Indicators:

  • Identify ideas, images, and symbols in contemporary life that have their roots in societies of the past (e.g., political, artistic, recreational, technological, mathematical and scientific).
  • Analyze the impact of knowledge acquired from events on the future of contemporary societies (e.g., the decline of the Roman Empire, the attempted annihilation of indigenous cultures and languages, the power in the organization of large corporations, the contribution of indigenous peoples to the survival of newcomers at the time of contact, and the willingness to share the bounty and abundance of the land, sometimes through sophisticated arrangements known as treaties.
  • Construct an inventory of references to traditional oral narratives found in current popular media, and determine the relevance of traditional narratives to contemporary society.

Outcome:

PA9.1

Examine concepts of power and authority in the governance of the societies studied.

Indicators:

  • Differentiate the essential characteristics of various systems of government, including democracy, consensus, monarchy, autocracy, and military regime.
  • Investigate and classify the systems of government in place at different periods in the history of the societies studied (e.g., democracy, consensus, monarchy, autocracy, military regime).
  • Interpret the effect of the system of government on the worldview of the societies studied, in terms of who had power, and how government leaders obtained power (e.g., Iroquois chiefs chosen by clan mothers, European leaders selected by elite males) and how power was exercised.
  • Explain the reasons underlying the existence of a particular system of government at a specific moment in the history of the societies studied.
  • Define the concept of the rule of law and trace its origins in the societies studied.
  • Draw conclusions about the effect of the rule of law on the worldview of the societies studied.
  • Compare the distribution of power and the application of authority of a society studied to contemporary Canadian society.

Part B Learning Plan

Throughout this study, students will be considering the challenges that occur while trying to obtain accurate information about past societies. (DR9.1)

Teacher Note
Guiding questions are suggested to support teachers as they explore the essential questions.  Teachers are encouraged to use the questions that support their classroom work and make wording changes or add additional questions as required.  Guiding questions are more closely related to the inquiry.

Students are always invited and encouraged to add their own questions for discovery.

Students will:

  • Learn what constitutes a society. (IN9.1)
  • Explore various factors that can influence the development of a societal worldview. (IN9.2)
  • Understand how worldview is expressed through history. (IN9.3)
  • Identify key historical events. (DR9.2)
  • Determine the influence of past societies on contemporary Canadian society. (DR9.4)
  • Understand the concepts of power and authority and the ways in which governance was established. (PA9.1)

Questions to Guide Inquiry

Essential questions are discussed over multiple years.  Guiding questions are adapted to connect more directly to the outcomes of the particular grade.

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • What makes democracy work? How could democracy be improved?
    • How does democracy affect you on a daily basis?
    • Is democracy the fairest way to represent people?
    • How is “fairness” determined in a democracy?
    • Whose perspective is predominant?
    • Do you think our democratic Canadian government is fair to all Canadians?
    • Should/Can a democratic government be fair to its constituents?
  • What is the relationship between rights and responsibilities?
    • What rights do you have and what responsibilities do those rights create?
    • What responsibilities does living in a democracy create?
    • What responsibility do you have to balance personal needs with community needs?
Inquiry

Why do we choose to live together in groups with rules?

Questions that hook

  • What is a society?
  • Why do people create/organize themselves into societies?
  • What does a society have to have in order to be termed a society?
  • Are societies unique?
  • Are societies equal?
  • Who decides how a society will function?
  • Are societies democratic?
  • What is the relationship between a society and common good?
  • Have societies always existed?

Surface students’ thinking on the questions posed here.  Capture their thinking for later reflection.

  • Develop a definition of society that identifies the characteristics, roles, and function of a society.
  • Using the graphic organizer, from the appendix, brainstorm and research the institutions and important people within the student’s community and society. This will included First Nations communities.
  • Surface students’ understanding of the functions, roles, and responsibilities within those institutions to society.
  • Chart for later reflection.  Do these institutions fulfill the criteria/characteristics identified for successful societal functioning? What do they add to the role and functions of current societal structures?  Adjust the original definition if necessary.

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section introduces the concepts and helps teachers gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and questions to pique students’ interests.  Allow students to think about and talk about the topics raised.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific and incidental teaching required to explore these outcomes.  Vocabulary should be noted here.  Record student thinking for reflection throughout the inquiry.

 

Teacher Note

This inquiry leads students to think about present day reasons as to why we organize ourselves in societies and then move to explore and consider the same concepts in historical communities. 

See appendix for graphic organizer: How Societies Structure Themselves to support student research.  Complete as a class, then complete for ancient society study.

Have we always done that?

What constitutes a society? (IN9.1)

How is societal worldview reflected in the things a society values? (IN9.2 IN9.3)

Students are examining the impact of ancient civilizations on the present.  Teachers are encouraged to have student groups choose or assign groups specific ancient civilizations and historical indigenous civilizations to research.  Have students study those same civilizations repeatedly so that students can gain a stronger understanding of the diversities of those civilizations.  Throughout all of the research, students are encouraged to consider the inherent difficulties of researching ancient history.

Historical civilizations include:

  • Macedonia
  • Rome
  • England
  • Spain
  • France
  • Mongolia

Historical Indigenous civilizations include:

  • One Indigenous civilization of North America
  • Mesopotamia or Ancient Egypt
  • Ancient Greece or Rome;
  • Aztec, Incan, or Mayan civilizations
  • Medieval Europe or Renaissance Europe
  • Ancient China or Japan
Students now move their thinking to examination of ancient civilizations.  Using the jigsaw research and study approach have them complete the graphic organizer identifying societal institutions for each of the specified groups.

Connect back to the inquiry questions:

  • Why do we choose to live together in groups with rules? Have we always done that?
  • What constitutes a society?
This can be done as a class or in groups.

  • What are the criteria needed for a civilization to call itself a society?
    • What does a society have to have to be called a society?/What constitutes a society?
    • Which of the civilizations studied would be termed a society? Defend your thinking.
    • Why wouldn’t all communities be included?
    • What were the strengths of your community?
    • What areas could have been improved?

These questions offer students an opportunity to consider how ethnocentrism impacted the understanding and acceptance of different societies, especially the societies of indigenous people.

  • Have societies always existed?
  • Are societies unique?
  • Are societies equal?
  • Who decides how a society will function?
  • Are societies democratic?
  • What is the relationship between a society and common good?
  • Why do you suppose some civilizations were considered societies while others were not?
DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING
This section is the core of the inquiry.  It describes the main activity(ies) involved.  In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that students make of the essential questions.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities.  This forms the  “They do” section of the inquiry where students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations.  Teachers work with students to clarify understandings and help the patterns become more visible.
Students extend their thinking of societal living to consider how worldviews impact society.  Again they consider current day examples and then extend their thinking to historical civilizations.  They consider how worldviews develop and then compare diverse worldviews and their impact on society.
  • How do diverse worldviews impact the acceptance of societal rules?

Brainstorm ways that your worldview is shown by your everyday life – activities, hobbies, choice of clothing, music, food.

Linking beliefs to worldview

  • Review and clarify students’ concept of a worldview. In groups or in a circle have them reflect on their personal beliefs, which frame their worldviews, about some contemporary issues or problems:
    • making friends;
    • affordable housing;
    • education, K-12 and post-secondary;
    • intergenerational families;
    • role of children, elders/seniors;
    • participating in religious or cultural ceremonies;
    • healthy food choices;
    • the role of technology in daily life;
    • drinking and driving;
    • violence
    • global warming;
    • designer clothing;
    • other- look for additional community issues for which students have opinions i.e. recycling, etc.

Chart their thinking and look for themes.

  • What are the commonalities? What accounts for the differences?
  • What worldviews are evident?
  • How do these factors affect your community/Canadian society?
  • What is their thinking saying about what they believe? /Their worldview?
  • How might someone from another country, culture describe the worldview of the students?
  • Is Canada’s multiculturalism reflected in the worldview of the students?
Teacher Note
If your classroom does not have a wide diversity of student worldviews, consider expanding the questions to include the community or the province to incorporate greater diversity.

Students also do a worldview reflection in the Lifelong Learning Citizen inquiries when they study Malala Yousafzai.

Research to find links between practices of historical civilizations that demonstrated beliefs and worldview.

Have students identify some of the other cultures within their community, including Indigenous cultures, and explore one or several of the options below:

  • Interview someone from those cultures asking for their thoughts on the same issues students explored as a group;
  • Have a panel of invited guests to speak to the class;
  • Invite representatives from cultures within the community to share their views; or, (Could do this using an inside/outside circle strategy).
  • Host a knowledge exchange.

Note similarities and differences between students’ thinking and those of the people sharing their thoughts.  What might be some of the reasons for the differences? Have students hypothesize about the reasons underlying the similarities and differences between the worldview of one individual and that of another person and look for themes.  Possible reasons or themes might be:

  • Time and place, culture, language, religion, gender identity, socio-economic situation and education.
  • Can these personal beliefs be summarized into specific worldviews?
  • Are worldviews reflective of specific cultures?
  • What is the impact of history on worldview?
    • How long have the various cultures held these worldviews?
  • Go back to your historical civilization studied. Identify and consider:
    • the attributes of leaders
    • the roles of various individuals within communities
    • cultural traditions and ceremonies
    • means of sustenance
    • family structures
    • educational structures
    • caring for the marginalized
  • Give a summary statement about the worldview as identified in the beliefs and actions of the community.
  • Identify similarities to your current society.  What accounts for the differences?

APPLY AND EXTEND KNOWLEDGE

This section includes ideas to extend the inquiry or apply concepts explored. This section may also include additional reflective questions to promote student connection to the topic.  This forms the “You do” section – extend thinking beyond the classroom discussions and inquiry experiences.  Pose additional reflective questions that have been raised to encourage critical and creative thinking.  
How is worldview expressed in the daily life of a society?

  • In Canada and identified historical cultures show how worldview is communicated and reflected in the following:
    • literature,
    • the arts,
    • cultural celebrations and traditions,
    • education (including Elder’s teachings if indigenous peoples)
    • sports and recreation,
    • architecture
    • fashion
  • What role does education play in perpetuating the worldview?
  • Give a summary statement identifying the worldview of the society studied.
Jigsaw Research and Study Process

Divide class into groups and have each group follow-up on their civilization of study.  Each group must find out the information in the questions posed.  Encourage students to present information learned in a variety of modes including speaking, writing, drama, multimedia, or other modes so that all students have an entrance point for demonstrating their learning and understanding.

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section introduces the concepts and assists teachers in gaining an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and questions to pique students’ interests.  Allow students to think about and talk about the topics raised.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific and incidental teaching required to explore these outcomes.  Vocabulary should be noted here.  Record student thinking for reflection throughout the inquiry.
Inquiry

What is the impact of history on the development of Contemporary Canada? Current society?  (DR9.2)

In preparation for the brainstorming activity have students interview family members to find out which historical events they remember and why.

With the class brainstorm…

What historical events do students remember?

  • List events and identify why they remember.
  • Categorize events identifying kind of historical event and impact.

Compare student events against family events.  Why do differences exist?

  • What are the key historical events in the country’s/civilization’s development? Represent in a timeline.
    • Identify event and factors that allowed event to happen.
    • What was the impact of that event on the development of the identified society?
      • historical impacts
      • current impacts
    • Have students decide which events are most significant to the development of Canada and defend their thinking.
  • Design a human timeline where students speak out sharing an important dateline of a key historical event.
  • What were the key events and who were the key people involved in the development of Canadian society?
  • How does the historical event impact you today?
  • Which members of a society have a voice in decision-making? What role does age play in decision-making?
Throughout these studies have students reflect upon the difficulties and inconsistencies that are associated with reviewing history written from a singular perspective.

Evaluate the authenticity and validity of information sources used in the inquiry.

Graphic organizers are available in the appendix to support student research.

After students have explored Canada, have student groups extend study to include significant historical events of specific historical societies.  Identify similarities between countries.  What themes are arising?

What is the influence of societies of the past on contemporary life in Canada? (DR9.4)

Using the graphic organizer, have students identify the ideas, images, and symbols in contemporary life that have their roots in societies of the past?

After researching your historical civilization

  • What were the key events and who were the key people involved in the development of your historical society?
  • What categories are recurring?
  • How does the history of your society impact you today?
  • Which members of the society had a voice in decision-making? What role does age play in decision-making?
  • What circumstances allowed the event to occur?

What are the similarities to critical Canadian events?  What themes are arising?

Historical

  • What has been the impact on contemporary society of these historical events?
    • the decline of the Roman Empire;
    • the attempted annihilation of Indigenous cultures and languages,
    • the power in the organization of large corporations;
    • the contribution of Indigenous peoples to the survival of newcomers at the time of contact, and
    • the willingness to share the bounty and abundance of the land, sometimes through sophisticated arrangements known as treaties.

First Nations Influence

  • What connections can you make between traditional and oral histories and cultural identity?
  • What is the impact of traditional narratives on contemporary society?
DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING
This section is the core of the inquiry.  It describes the main activity(ies) involved.  In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the essential questions.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities.  This forms the  “They do” section of the inquiry where students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations.

In this part of the inquiry students compare differing forms of governance to consider the influence on the present.

(See Governance Comparisons graphic organizer in appendix)

In this inquiry students are examining alternate forms of governance and considering their impact on history and various societies.   They are becoming experts on that   particular society and teaching their information to other students.
Inquiry

How have the concepts and roles of power and authority been demonstrated in the history of governance?  What are their impacts on Canada today?  (PA9.1)

Questions that hook:

  • Which is more effective, power or authority?
  • Who is the boss of you? Who has authority over you?
  • How have the roles of power and authority changed from ancient times to today?

“Canada is founded upon principles that recognize the supremacy of God and the rule of law.” 

  • What does this mean to students?
  • Surface and record student thinking.

Using the jigsaw study process have students investigate the significant historical events studied and within their chosen country (Be sure to consider Indigenous and non-Indigenous civilizations)

Identify:

  • The systems of government in place at different periods in the history of the societies studied.
    • Who had power?
    • How government leaders obtained and maintained power?
    • e.
      • Iroquois chiefs chosen by clan mothers,
      • European leaders selected by elite males
    • Explain the reasons for the existence of a particular system of government at the specific moment in history of the societies studied.
As a class Think about… Talk about…

  • Differentiate the essential characteristics of the system of governments identifying whether they were:
    • democracy
    • consensus,
    • monarchy
    • autocracy
    • military regime
  • What was the effect of the system of government on the worldview of the societies studied?
  • What was the effect of the development of the rule of law on the worldview of society studied?
  • What have been the impacts of the governance models ie. distribution of power and the application of authority in the studied society, on contemporary Canadian society?
  • What were some of the most significant effects on Canada’s development of the rule of law?

APPLY AND EXTEND KNOWLEDGE

This section includes ideas to extend the inquiry and apply concepts explored. This section may also include additional reflective questions to promote student connection to the topic.  This forms the “You do” section – extend thinking beyond the classroom discussions and inquiry experiences.  Pose additional reflective questions that have been raised to encourage critical and creative thinking. 
  • Why are there sports teams named after First Nation names?
  • Is it appropriate to use symbols or logos from another ones culture?
  • What do you think of spiritual connections to cultural connections?

Resources to support students’ study or stimulate thinking

  • National Museum of the American Indian Winter 2013- “A Tribe Called Red”

http://www.americanindianmagazine.org/story/tribe-called-red

The group sent a message,

“Non-Natives who come to our shows, please don’t wear headdresses or war paint. It’s making fun of our race and culture and is extremely insulting and demeaning. Please stop”.

  • Alaora Arnold. Urban Native Magazine “Decolonizing the Mind” Coachella.

Westernized culture has created a feeling of entitlement and the ability to blatantly take from other cultures. When entering these discussions about cultural appropriation it proves helpful to make efforts to “decolonize the mind”. – See more at: http://urbannativemag.com/decolonize-the-mind-coachella/#sthash.fch6QUdU.dpuf

Each feather was earned. The significance of eagle feathers is still honoured today in contemporary indigenous culture and the war bonnet specifically is not definitive of all Native American people today. Every community practices their own belief system.”

“Symbols like the headdress are owned by the tribes. They are sacred to our communities. It is hurtful to see them used in any other way”.

EVIDENCE OF LEARNING

This section suggests ways in which students may demonstrate their understanding.  Ideal demonstrations will be in authentic performance tasks.  Each citizenship study may have its own smaller assessment piece or be compiled to support one larger performance task assessment.  Assessment pieces vary, but should allow students to demonstrate their understanding in a variety of ways.
Assessment of the learning will vary but should allow students to demonstrate their learning and understanding in a variety of ways.

Students should be able demonstrate an understanding of:

  • What constitutes a society?
  • How the factors such as time, place, culture, language, religion, gender identity, socio-economic situation and education shape an individual’s worldview.
  • The influence that significant past events influence contemporary society.

Self-Assessment/Reflection

  • What you think is more effective “power” or “authority” in the governance of a society. Explain your thinking.
  • What is the balance between freedom and order in a society?
  • How do we decide what is needed both individually and as a society?
  • Whose perspective is most often represented in establishing societal norms? How would you include other perspectives?
  • What is the most important contribution of historical societies on present day Canada? Explain your thinking.

STUDENT CITIZENSHIP JOURNAL OPPORTUNITIES

Students will continue to explore their understanding of their role as a Canadian citizen and reflect on their perspective in an ongoing journal.  Consider video journaling as an option.  Art may be included throughout the journal; some to accompany the journal entry and some that are random drawings and sketching. The journal entries are a record of the student’s thinking and reflect their journey as citizens.

Students are keeping a Citizenship Journal to reflect upon their developing views of citizenship.  This section provides prompts for student journals.  Students are invited to choose one that interests them or propose their own. Students can also respond to any of the essential questions.

Students are encouraged to respond using a variety of genres.

  • What do you think is more effective “power” or “authority” in the governance of a society?
  • What is the balance between freedom and order in a society?
  • How do we decide what is needed both individually and as a society
  • Respond to any of the essential questions

Part C

Inquiry Resources

Cross Curricular Connections

Language Arts

Themes

  • Personal and Philosophical: Students will reflect upon:
    • self-image and self-esteem; and,
    • self and life, and on their beliefs and values and those of their society.
  • Social, Cultural, and Historical: Students will
    • look outward and examine their relationships with others, their community, and that of the world; and,
    • consider the historical context.
  • Environmental and Technological: Students will:
    • explore the elements of the natural and constructed world and the role of technology and related developments in their society.
  • Communicative: Students will:
    • consider the role of communication in their lives and the ideas and technologies that help people become effective communicators.

Treaty Education

  • TR9: Investigate the treaty experiences of Indigenous people around the world.
  • SI9: Apply understanding of treaties and treaty making with world Indigenous peoples.
  • HC9: Analyze how treaty making recognizes peoples’ rights and responsibilities.
  • TPP9: Examine the effectiveness of treaty making in addressing the circumstances of Indigenous peoples.

Health

Understanding, Skills, and Confidences (USC)

  • 2 Analyze how the well-being of self, family, community, and the environment is enhanced by a comprehensive, community approach to safety.
  • 3 Interpret, critique, and question the stigma associated with individuals, families, and communities living with/affected by non-curable infections/diseases, including HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis C and for those who advocate for them.
  • 4 Analyze the norms and expectations (e.g., community, cultural) associated with romantic relationships as a means to effectively plan for related health promotion.
  • 5 Evaluate a variety of healthy food policies and plan to participate in the development, revision, and/or implementation of a healthy food policy (e.g., fundraising, feasts, canteen sales, extra-curricular events) in the community (e.g., home, school, arena, youth center).
  • 6 Analyze the health, economic, and social supports and challenges of addictions (e.g., tobacco, shopping, alcohol, gambling, Internet, drugs) on self, family, community, and the environment.
  • 7 Analyze tragic death and suicide as distressing community issues and appraise what supports and health promotions exist in the community to address these issues.
  • 8 Assess the ways self, family, and community facilitate healthy living for people with chronic illness.

Decision Making

DM9.11 Analyze the health opportunities and challenges and establish personal health promotion goal statements related to comprehensive approaches to safety, non-curable infections/diseases, romantic relationships, addictions, tragic death and suicide, chronic illness, and sexual health.

Further Investigation Suggestions

  • Invite a local activist to speak with the class regarding alternative choices to living.
  • Visit a local historical or cultural museum, taking note of past influences. Have students take a moment of solo time along the way where they sit and take in the ambiance. Write a reflective piece of writing.
  • Construct an inventory of references to traditional oral narratives found in current popular media
  • Research your own cultural background and genealogy. Find a story in your family history and share that story in a dramatic presentation. Reflect on how that story may have influence your family history.
  • Find a refugee family and interview them as to their journey to come to Canada. Share their story through an artistic representation of art, poetry, drama or prose.
  • Identify a specific system of government in a country in the world and follow their current political situation. How does their government compare to the democratic government in Canada?
  • Using the research done on societies studied prepare a news release through various forms of social media. In your news release answer the five “W’s” of journalism (who, what, where, when, why).
  • Create a role play that identifies the various forms of government. Be sure to include strong characteristics in your political leaders and current events.
  • Create a “how- to guide” that explains how to establish a government with various systems of government (democracy, consensus, monarchy, autocracy, military regime)

Glossary

www.vocabulary.com

Autocracy

An autocracy is a government controlled by one person with absolute power. As unlimited power doesn’t usually bring out the best in people, autocracies are often brutal regimes.

The word autocracy comes from the Greek roots auto (“self”) and kratos (“power”). If your boss dictates your every move and leaves you no say at all in how you do your work, then you’re not in a democratic workplace, you’re in an autocracy.

Consensus

When there’s a consensus, everyone agrees on something. If you’re going to a movie with friends, you need to reach a consensus about which movie everyone wants to see.

Ever notice how people disagree about just about everything, from who’s the best baseball player to how high taxes should be? Whenever there’s disagreement, there’s no consensus: consensus means everyone is on the same page. When you’re talking about all the people in the world, it’s hard to find a consensus on anything. There are just too many opinions. However, in a smaller group, reaching a consensus is possible.

Democracy

Whether you’re talking about your glee club or a powerful nation, the word democracy describes government based on participation of the people, either directly or through elected representatives.

Democracy traces back to the Greek words demos, meaning “people,” and kratia, meaning “power.” “People power” remains central to democracy, whether you’re describing a country or a much smaller organization. If your glee club is run as a democracy, then everybody gets to vote on questions like what you’re going to sing and what kind of outfits you’re going to wear. Because democracy assumes some idea of equality, it’s often used to mean a just society, one in which everyone is treated equally.

Ethnocentrism

Anyone who judges people or traditions based on his own cultural standards is guilty of ethnocentrism. It means believing that the way you’re used to doing things is the only right way to do them, and that people or cultures that do things differently are wrong. Ethnocentrism comes from the Greek ethno, or “people” and centric, “center;” so when you put your own people, or culture, at the center of the world, you’re letting your ethnocentrism show.

Gender identity

Your identity as it is experienced with regard to your individuality as male or female; awareness normally begins in infancy and is reinforced

Indigenous

Indigenous, aboriginal and native all mean the same thing. Aboriginal, however, is commonly used in connection with Australia, and native with North America. The most neutral of the three terms, indigenous comes from the Latin word, indigena meaning “a native.” An indigenous ceremony or religion is one traditionally used by a certain group of people.

Institution

The noun institution also refers to a long held custom or practice in society. Even if your parents divorced when you were young, you might strongly believe in the institution of marriage. Or you might believe that once you enter the institution of marriage, your next stop will probably be a mental institution. Institution can also describe the act of putting something in place. The institution of new traffic rules — green means stop and red means go — caused a bit of confusion.

Military

Stemming from the Latin word for “soldier,” military is a word that goes hand in hand with war. It’s the military that protects a country’s interests, lead by generals and powered by brave soldiers. When used as an adjective, military describes anything that’s related to, well, the military: salutes, campaigns, uniforms, etc.

Monarchy

A monarchy is a country that is ruled by a monarch, and monarchy is this system or form of government

A monarch, such as a king or queen, rules a kingdom or empire. In a constitutional monarchy, the monarch’s power is limited by a constitution. But in an absolute monarchy, the monarch has unlimited power. Monarchy is an old form of government, and the word has been around a long time. It derives from Greek monarkhiā, from monarkhos “monarch.”

Multiculturalism

Multiculturalism is an optimistic philosophy that says if we learn about and accept other cultures, we’ll all get along better. Sometimes multiculturalism is celebrated by eating food from other countries or learning about how people live in different parts of the world. When you study multiculturalism, you usually learn two things: how different other people are, and how similar they are, too.

Regime

Regime takes its militaristic and government feel from the Latin word regimen “to rule.” A political regime has a negative association to it that makes you think of totalitarian governments. How did it come to mean “diet” or “program of exercise” as well? If you are put on a regime of exercise and healthy eating, you are ordered by a doctor to do these things and it probably feels like you’re being ruled sometimes!

Society

The noun society refers to people living in social order. Unless you are a reclusive person, you are a part of society in some way or another.

Society can also refer to fashionable elite, the “beau monde” or “smart set.” An organization or club formed around a common interest is sometimes also called a society. To add to its mystique, this type of society might create special rules, greetings, or handshakes. Certain national societies that may have branches in your community include the Elks Lodge or the National Association of Professional Women.

Organization

A formal association of people with similar interests

The fashionable elite

The state of being with someone

Worldview

A comprehensive view of the world and human life

CITIZENSHIP STUDIES GRADE 9: LIFELONG LEARNING CITIZENS

Part A

Broad Area of Citizenship

Lifelong Learning citizens continuously strive to understand the dynamics of change and critically seek new information so that they can make reasoned decisions.  They strive to develop a critical understanding of, actively explore and analyze events, and consider the impacts of decisions made at local, national, and global levels.  They are learning that there are different points of view or perspectives to issues and think about how rules and laws have different impacts on different groups of people.   This area of Citizenship study develops skills, attitudes and knowledge so that students can appreciate the power that comes through advocating for specific causes.

Overview of Citizenship Study

Grade 9 students study the Roots of Society.  They explore historical societies of Macedonia, Rome, England, Spain, France, and Mongolia to understand the impact on today’s thinking.  They will also study at least one historical indigenous society of North America as well as Mesopotamia or Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece or Rome, Aztec, Incan, or Mayan civilizations, Medieval Europe or Renaissance Europe, or, Ancient China or Japan.

Grade 9 students continue to add to their understandings regarding the complexities of diversity, the impact of humans on the environment and the processes for decision making in the democratic process.  Study in this grade examines the Roots of Society and connects students with historical perspectives of early societies so that students can have a better understanding of the role that history plays on present societal structures.

Students compare differing historical perspectives to acquisition of wealth and use of resources and examine the effects of societal worldview on economic practices. Economies, impacts of trade, transportation and technology are compared across societies. Students are asked to think about the impact of lifestyle choices on natural environmental issues occurring at local, national, and global levels.

Enduring Understandings of Citizenship Study

The forces that affect people are constantly changing.  Lifelong Learning citizens have a responsibility to continually explore issues and seek to understand present day realities.  Students examine historical events to understand the perspective that history and context places on present decision making.

Students will understand that:

  • History and current events are understood through diverse historical perspectives.
  • Democracy requires discussion and consideration of alternate points of view in order to find a balance between individual perspectives.
  • Citizens value the needs of the collective common good and consider how their actions impact the collective well-being.
  • Canadian multicultural policies challenge citizenship tenets and require consideration of multiple perspectives.
  • Canada’s history includes First Nations, Métis, and Inuit governance and perspectives and each have contributed to Canadian identity.
  • Decision-making is a complex process with far-reaching impacts.
  • Engaged citizens strive to be knowledgeable, uphold their rights, and act on their responsibilities.
  • Enduring understandings are the big ideas that stimulate thinking, guide the inquiry and are linked to outcomes.
  • Essential questions point to the “big ideas’ in the inquiry and should be considered and reconsidered as the inquiry progresses.
  • Answers to these questions form the evidence of learning at the end of study.

Knowledge and Skill Development

Students will:

  • Examine and seek to understand diverse historical perspectives.
  • Consider the inequities of power and authority that can accompany diversity.
  • Understand the importance of and develop skills for advocacy.
  • Realize the value of lifelong learning.

Essential Questions

  • How do you determine fairness?
  • What influences your decision-making?
  • How large is your sphere of influence and what can you control?
  • What is the relationship between the natural environment and the development of society?
  • What responsibilities come with affirming a multicultural society?
Essential Questions are open-ended questions that are continually revisited, encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study, form the evidence of understanding and frame the assessment at the end of the study.

Curriculum Outcomes and Indicators

Student friendly outcomes should be posted throughout the inquiry and continually referenced so the goals of the learning are clearly available to students.

Sask. Curriculum Outcomes: Student Friendly Outcomes

Outcome:

IN9.4

Determine the influence of worldview on the choices, decisions, and interactions in a society.

Student Friendly: Look at how a society’s perspective might influence choices, decisions and interactions within that society.

Indicators

  • Explain the influence of worldview on personal choices, decisions, and interactions (e.g., choice of friends, choice of fashion, the significance of education, participation or non-participation in events, choice of pastimes and recreational activities, approaches to nature and ecology, approaches to consumerism).
  • Analyze the influence of worldviews upon attitudes toward territorial expansion, colonization, or empire-building in the societies studied, and assess the impact of such activities on the indigenous cultures and peoples.
  • Explain how the worldview of Canadian First Nations, including the value placed on harmony and trust, led to the signing of Treaties.
  • Judge the influence and impact of worldview on the progress or decline of the societies studied.

RW9.1

Compare differing perspectives regarding the acquisition and distribution of resources and wealth in the societies studied.

Student Friendly: Look at the different ways that societies acquire and distribute wealth.

Indicators:

  • Investigate the strategies used to acquire and distribute resources in the societies studied.
  • Compare the perspectives regarding the distribution of resources in the societies studied, and assess the results in terms of consequences for the populations of the societies.
  • Research the processes for decision making regarding production and distribution of wealth and resources in the societies studied.
  • Infer the values of the societies studied according to the categories of acquisition and distribution of resources and wealth.

RW9.2

Appraise the significance of trade and transportation in the development of the societies studied.

Student Friendly:  Critically view ways in which trade and transportation have affected the development of society.

  • Analyze the impact of physical geography on modes of transportation in the societies studied.
  • Investigate motives for trade, approaches to trade, and trading patterns of societies studied, to assess the effects on the economy and prosperity of that society.
  • Compare the prosperity of societies studied, and infer reasons for similarities and differences.
  • Assess the importance of trade relations and transportation systems for prosperity in the societies studied, and make generalizations with reference to contemporary Canada.

RW9.3

Determine the influence of technologies of past societies studied on contemporary society.

Student Friendly: Look at the ways that technology in the past might affect society today.

Indicators

  • Illustrate on a timeline the significant scientific, mathematical, technological, artistic, and cultural achievements of past societies.
  • Explain the impact of tools and other technologies developed in past societies on the economies and lifestyles of those societies.
  • Discern the influence of the tools and other technologies of one society studied upon another society studied.
  • Represent achievements and technologies of the contemporary world that have their origins in the achievements and technologies of societies studied (e.g., weapons, dyes, medications, tools, transportation methods, navigation instruments, architecture, printing, mathematics).

Part B Learning Plan

Questions are posted and discussed with students at the start of the exploration of study. These open-ended questions are continually revisited; encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study; form the evidence of understanding; and, frame the assessment at the end of the unit of study. Guiding questions are posed to support student thinking as they explore the answers to the larger overarching questions.  

Teachers may want to consider putting the questions into a “Before, During, After” chart to note the changes in students’ thinking as a result of the inquiries.

Students will:

  • Determine how worldview influences the decisions, choices, and interactions of society (IN9.4);
  • Compare differing perspectives regarding the acquisition and distribution of resources and wealth (RW9.1);
  • Evaluate how trade and transportation impacted the development of societies (RW9.2); and,
  • Determine how past technologies impacted contemporary society (RW9.3).

Questions to Guide Inquiry

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • What is the relationship between the natural environment and the development of society?
    • Does your environment and where you live/sense of place/relationship affect how your cultural and social behaviours develop?
    • Are you a user or protector of the environment?
    • Does the environment impact your beliefs and values?
  • What influences your decision-making?
    • How important is understanding history to current decision-making?
    • What causes you to change your mind?
    • What does it take for society to make a change?
  • How large is your sphere of influence and what can you control?
    • What is the impact of those influences: positive or negative?
    • Is it possible to control the impact of those influences?
    • What influences on the world does our lifestyle create?
  • How do you determine fairness?
    • Whose perspective should be considered when determining what is fair?
  • What responsibilities come with affirming a multicultural society?
    • How are multiple perspectives considered in the decision making process?
    • Whose perspective has framed most of historical decision-making?
    • How important is culture to a person’s identity?
    • What are the impacts of many cultures living together?
    • What influence does worldview have on a person’s identity?
    • What is the impact of Canada’s multicultural policy on the development of Canadian citizens?

Vocabulary

  • acquisition
  • colonization
  • distribution
  • empathy
  • empire building
  • imperial
  • imperialism
  • marginalization
  • territorial expansion
  • worldview

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section introduces the concepts and helps teachers gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and allow students to think about and talk about.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific and incidental teaching required to explore these outcomes.  Vocabulary should be noted here.  Record students’ current thinking for reflection throughout inquiry.
The intent of this exercise is to have students connect to and consider current, ongoing issues that people of their age face in the world – to put a modern face and connection to what they will be learning. (Increase relevance) However, the outcomes and indicators ask students to understand the role of history in the development of today’s societies and mores so it is important to examine historical societies and make links to the current practice and beliefs.   This is a connecting activity.  It cannot become the entire focus of the inquiry.
Inquiry

What is the influence of worldview on the choices, decisions, and interactions in a society?

Pose these essential questions to students to surface their thinking.

  • What influences your decision-making?
    • How important is understanding history to current decision-making?
    • What causes you to change your mind?
    • What does it take for society to make a change?
  • How large is your sphere of influence and what can you control?
    • What is the impact of those influences: positive or negative?
    • Is it possible to control the impact of your decisions?
  • What responsibilities come with affirming a multicultural society?
    • How important is culture to a person’s identity?
    • What are the impacts of many cultures living together?
    • What influence does worldview have on a person’s identity? 
  • What is your worldview?
    • What do you think about the way people should be treated, the importance of human rights, the way we should live with others in our world?
    • How do you resolve differences of opinion that result from differing perspectives and experiences?
    • What do you think is your responsibility to the environment?
Teacher Note

Grade 9 students study the Roots of Society. 

Students will explore historical societies of Macedonia, Rome, England, Spain, France, and Mongolia.  They will also study at least one historical Indigenous society of North America as well as:

  • Mesopotamia or Ancient Egypt;
  • Ancient Greece or Rome;
  • Aztec, Incan, or Mayan civilizations;
  • Medieval Europe or Renaissance Europe;
  • Ancient China or Japan.

Historical indigenous societies include:

  • One Indigenous society of North America
  • Mesopotamia or Ancient Egypt;
  • Ancient Greece or Rome;
  • Aztec, Incan, or Mayan civilizations;
  • Medieval Europe or Renaissance Europe;
  • Ancient China or Japan.

These inquiries have students examining the impact of ancient civilizations on present society.  Teachers are encouraged to assign students specific ancient societies and have students study those same civilizations repeatedly so that students can gain a stronger understanding of the diversities of those civilizations.

Give students time to think about this, talk about this and write about this.  Later students will be asked to examine their behaviour to see what story it tells.  Does their behaviour match what they think they believe?

Watch online video of Malala Yousafzai, female Pakistan student shot for attempting to attend school, on www.Youtube.com .   After the video surface what students knew or learned about the rules of the Taliban government in regards to females attending school.   (see appendix for article and graphic organizer to support research on Malala Yousafzai)

  • What things were evident about Malala’s worldview?
  • What did students learn or can infer about the influence of Malala’s worldview on her personal choices, decisions, and interactions? e.
    • choice of friends,
    • choice of fashion,
    • the significance of education,
    • participation or non-participation in events,
    • choice of pastimes and recreational activities,
    • approaches to nature and ecology,
    • approaches to consumerism
  • What personal connections are they making to Malala’s experiences?
    • Fill out your side of the graphic organizer and compare experiences.
    • Look for similarities and differences. Why do they exist?
  • What do your choices, your behaviours, your experiences say about your worldviews?
  • Could Malala’s experience happen in Canada? Justify your answer and explain your thinking.
    • Record your reflection in your journal.
    • How has the past (cultural beliefs and behaviours) influenced Malala’s present societal experience?
    • What is the relationship between history and the present in her circumstances?
DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING
This section is the core of the inquiry.  It describes the main activity(ies) involved.  In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the essential questions.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities.  This forms the  “They do” section of the inquiry where students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations.  Teachers work with students to clarify understandings and help the patterns become more visible.
Throughout these studies have students reflect upon the difficulties and inconsistencies that are associated with reviewing history written from a singular perspective.

Evaluate the authenticity and validity of information sources used in the inquiry process.

See appendix for graphic organizers to support student research

  • Using the research and based on the actions of their researched countries, have students analyze and infer what the country believed about:
    • territorial expansion,
    • colonization,
    • empire-building
  • What was the impact of such activities on the indigenous cultures and peoples?
  • What was the influence and impact of worldview on the progress or decline of the societies studied?
  • Explain how the worldview of the Indigenous people impacted the progress or decline of their society.
This section has students making connections to the essential questions and their previous explorations on worldviews.  Students are looking for patterns and themes.

  • Where do you see the impact of history on current decision-making?
  • Go back to your worldview exploration of Malala and yourself. Where do you see the impact of history on current worldviews?
  • Explain the impact of the worldview of Canadian First Nations, in the signing of Treaties. Include the value placed on harmony and trust.

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section introduces the concepts and gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and allow students to think about and talk about.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific and incidental teaching required to explore these outcomes.  Vocabulary should be noted here.  Record students’ current thinking for reflection throughout inquiry.
Teacher Note

Teachers may choose to begin the discussion connecting the use of resources to the economy by talking about present day Saskatchewan examples.  By using more current and concrete examples, teachers can judge the baseline knowledge of their students regarding these concepts and be able to provide necessary supports when research on historical societies begins.

Inquiry

How does history affect you today?

How did differing perspectives and worldview impact the development of societies studied? 

What is the impact of past beliefs on current society?

Students will:

  • Consider the views and behaviours around the:
    • acquisition and distribution of resources and wealth;
    • the significance of trade and transportation; and,
    • the impacts of technology.

Impact of Resources and Wealth:

Acquisition, Use and Distribution

In your respective country identify:

  • The resources that contributed to the wealth of those societies.
  • How those resources were acquired and distributed.
  • How those resources were produced/refined/manufactured.
  • How the wealth from those resources was distributed.
  • What was the impact of those decisions on the populations studied?
  • What can you infer about the values of the societies based on their behaviours?
Compare the perspectives regarding the distribution of resources in the societies studied, and the results for the populations of the societies.

  • What are the similarities and differences?
    • What patterns are students noticing?
    • What current connections/impacts on contemporary Canada resulted from these historical behaviours?
Jigsaw Research and Study Process

Divide class into groups and give each group or have groups choose a specific area of research to learn about and present to class.  Each group must find out the information in the question posed below.  Encourage students to present information learned in a variety of modes including speaking, writing, drama, multimedia, or other modes so that all students have an entrance point for demonstrating their learning and understanding.

Teacher Note

If students are having difficulty with their research, check their understanding of the concepts.  Do this by connecting the questions to present day Saskatchewan examples. 

Impact of Trade and Transportation:

In your respective country identify:

Transportation

  • What was/were the preferred modes of transportation?
  • How did the physical geography impact transportation?
  • How successful were the transportation modes?

Trade

  • What were the motives for trade?
  • How was trade conducted?/What were the approaches to trade?
  • Who were the trading partners?
  • What were the effects of trade on the economy and prosperity of that society?
Compare the perspectives regarding the trading practices in the societies studied, and the results for the populations of the societies.

  • What are the similarities and differences?
  • What patterns are students noticing?
  • What current connections/impacts on contemporary Canada resulted from these historical behaviours?

Impact of Tools/Technology:

In your respective country:

  • Illustrate on a timeline the following achievements: (Use one timeline for comparison)
    • scientific,
    • mathematical,
    • technological,
    • artistic, and
    • cultural
  • Explain the impact of tools and other technologies developed:
    • on the economies and lifestyles of those societies.
    • upon other societies studied
Compare the impacts of tools and technology in the societies studied, and the results for the populations of the societies.

  • What are the similarities and differences?
  • What patterns are students noticing?
  • What current impacts on contemporary Canada resulted from these historical developments?
  • Within the following areas, identify and represent the achievements and technologies of the contemporary world that have their origins in the achievements and technologies of societies studied:
    • weapons,
    • dyes,
    • medications,
    • tools,
    • transportation methods,
    • navigation instruments,
    • architecture,
    • printing,
    • mathematics

APPLY AND EXTEND KNOWLEDGE

This section includes ideas to “wrap up” the inquiry or apply concepts explored. This section may also include additional reflective questions to promote student connection to the topic.  This forms the “You do” section – extend thinking beyond the classroom discussions and inquiry experiences.  Pose additional reflective questions that have been raised to encourage critical and creative thinking.  
Compare Canada’s Universal Health System and the Health System based on insurance in the United States of America.  Discuss the importance of being able to take care of your own citizens in a country.

Research the beginnings of Medicare in the province of Saskatchewan, 1962, under the leadership of Tommy Douglas. Reflect in your journal on the values of a society that would vote for universal health care.

Examine other countries that have universal health care and discover the roots or impetus for that development in that particular country.  What values are demonstrated in those countries?

Prepare a radio or television show on the historical events that shaped our country during the years of territorial expansion and empire building. Highlight the personal lives and stories that come from your research.

EVIDENCE OF LEARNING

This section suggests ways in which students may demonstrate their understanding.  Ideal demonstrations will be in authentic performance tasks.  Each citizenship study may have its own smaller assessment piece or be compiled to support one larger performance task assessment.  Assessment pieces vary, but should allow students to demonstrate their understanding in a variety of ways.
Students should be able demonstrate an understanding of:

  • The impact of territorial expansion and empire building on the lives of indigenous populations.
  • The relationship between the natural environment and the development of a society.
  • Tthe differing perspectives regarding the acquisition and distribution of resources.

Final reflection on Inquiry Questions

Inquiry

  • What is the influence of worldview on the choices, decisions, and interaction in a society?
    • How important is understanding history to understanding current decision making?
    • What does it take for a society to make a change?
  • What responsibilities come with affirming a multicultural society?
    • What influence does worldview have on a person’s identity?
    • What are the impacts of many cultures living together?

Inquiry

How does history impact you today?

  • How did differing perspectives and worldview impact the development of societies studied?
    • Whose perspective is most commonly reflected in decision-making?
    • What would it take to make a change?
  • What is the impact of past beliefs on current society?
  • Why is it important to know this information?
  • What will you do with this information as a citizen?

STUDENT CITIZENSHIP JOURNAL OPPORTUNITIES

Students will continue to explore their understanding of their role as a Canadian citizen and reflect on their perspective in an Ongoing Journal.  Consider also opportunities for video journaling.  Art may be included throughout the journal; some to accompany the journal entry and some that are random drawings and sketching. The journal entries are a record of the student’s thinking and increasing understanding of their citizenship responsibilities.

Students are keeping a Citizenship Journal to reflect upon their developing views of citizenship.  This section provides prompts for student journals.  Students are invited to choose one that interests them or propose their own. Students can also respond to any of the essential questions.

Students are encouraged to respond using a variety of genres.

  • In a reflective piece of writing, explore the impact of social progress on the natural environment and indigenous cultures of the world.
  • Do you think indigenous people have paid a greater price in order for societies to progress? (natural resources and health natural resources)
  • Do you think the natural environment has paid a greater price for societies progress? (natural resources and health natural resources)
  • What is progress?
  • What might be the values of a society that would vote for universal health care?

Part C

Inquiry Resources

Cross Curricular Connections

Language Arts

Themes

  • Personal and Philosophical: Students will reflect upon:
    • self-image and self-esteem; and,
    • self and life, and on their beliefs and values and those of their society.
  • Social, Cultural, and Historical: Students will
    • look outward and examine their relationships with others, their community, and that of the world; and,
    • consider the historical context.
  • Environmental and Technological: Students will:
    • explore the elements of the natural and constructed world and the role of technology and related developments in their society.
  • Communicative: Students will:
    • consider the role of communication in their lives and the ideas and technologies that help people become effective communicators.

Treaty Education

  • TR9: Investigate the treaty experiences of Indigenous people around the world.
  • SI9: Apply understanding of treaties and treaty making with world indigenous peoples.
  • HC9: Analyze how treaty making recognizes peoples’ rights and responsibilities.
  • TPP9: Examine the effectiveness of treaty making in addressing the circumstances of Indigenous peoples.

Health

Understanding, Skills, and Confidences (USC)

  • USC9.2 Analyze how the well-being of self, family, community, and the environment is enhanced by a comprehensive, community approach to safety.
  • USC9.3 Interpret, critique, and question the stigma associated with individuals, families, and communities living with/affected by non-curable infections/diseases, including HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis C and for those who advocate for them.
  • USC9.4 Analyze the norms and expectations (e.g., community, cultural) associated with romantic relationships as a means to effectively plan for related health promotion.
  • USC9.5 Evaluate a variety of healthy food policies and plan to participate in the development, revision, and/or implementation of a healthy food policy (e.g., fundraising, feasts, canteen sales, extra-curricular events) in the community (e.g., home, school, arena, youth center).
  • USC9.6 Analyze the health, economic, and social supports and challenges of addictions (e.g., tobacco, shopping, alcohol, gambling, Internet, drugs) on self, family, community, and the environment.
  • USC9.7 Analyze tragic death and suicide as distressing community issues and appraise what supports and health promotions exist in the community to address these issues.
  • USC9.8 Assess the ways self, family, and community facilitate healthy living for people with chronic illness.

Decision Making

  • DM9.11 Analyze the health opportunities and challenges and establish personal health promotion goal statements related to comprehensive approaches to safety, non-curable infections/diseases, romantic relationships, addictions, tragic death and suicide, chronic illness, and sexual health.

Further Investigation Suggestions

  • Compare Canada’s Universal Health System and the Health System based on insurance in the United States of America. Discuss the importance of being able to take care of your own citizens in a country.
  • Research the beginnings of Medicare in the province of Saskatchewan, 1962, under the leadership of Tommy Douglas. Reflect in your journal on the values of a society that would vote for universal health care.
  • Examine other countries that have universal health care and discover the roots or impetus for that development in that particular country. What values are demonstrated in those countries?
  • Prepare a radio or television show on the historical events that shaped our country during the years of territorial expansion and empire building. Highlight the personal lives and stories that come from your research.

GLOSSARY

The following definitions are found at: Vocabulary.com

“Text from Vocabulary.com, Copyright ©1998-2016 Thinkmap, Inc.  All rights reserved.”

Acquisition is something you acquire—a book, a skill or if you are a mogul, a company. It describes things you have purchased, things you have learned, or things you have got.

Colonization – is the act of setting up a colony away from one’s place of origin. Remember when the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock? That was the beginning of a period of colonization.

Distribution – means the passing out of something.

Empire – an empire is a group of countries or territories that are under the control of a single entity but it can be used figuratively too.

Imperialism – imperialism is a type of government that seeks to increase its size, either by forcing (through war) or influencing (through politics) other countries to submit to their rule.

Society – refers to people living in social order. Unless you are a reclusive person, you are a part of society in some way or another.

Territory – a certain area that’s owned or under the control of someone is called a territory. Countries defend their territories during wars.

Worldview – a comprehensive view of the world and human life.

Appendix

Positive Peer Pressure can Make a Change

http://www.leaderpost.com/news/Positive+peer+pressure+make+change/10030235/story.html

By Marc and Craig Kielburger, The Leader-Post July 15, 2014

Malala Yousafzai thinks the world is small – “a family,” she told us, “in one house.”

When she met with the parents of some of the 276 schoolgirls kidnapped by Boko Haram on her trip to Nigeria this past weekend, she called the girls her “sisters,” promising to speak out until their release.

Before her trip to Nigeria, she took her first trip to Africa with us two months ago. In Kenya’s Maasai Mara to help build a girls’ school, she was welcomed like a sibling, laughing and quietly conspiring with the local girls while she hauled cement at Oleleshwa, a Free The Children school.

Teaching a geography class, Malala held her composure at the chalk board until she erupted in giggles with the other students, a perfect enactment of her twin roles for them – mentor and peer. She is after all just 17, having celebrated her birthday and Malala Day – a UN-designated day of awareness for universal education – on July 12 while in Nigeria. The latest campaign from her Malala Fund is cultivating the hashtag #strongerthan, with supporters posting photos and messages to prove they are stronger than the enemies of education.

The world knows her as the girl who was shot by the Taliban. In her home country, Malala was wellknown as an activist by the time she was 11. From her bedroom in her home in Pakistan’s Swat Valley, she listened to the bombs outside and blogged anonymously for the BBC. The day the Taliban came for her, she was 15, shot in the head with a Colt .45 pistol.

The world, and especially its youth, rallied around her. We had a chance to speak to Malala about the advice she would give to children in the West who want to live her message for universal rights to education.

Remember the world is small Malala: This world is like a family, and in one house if you don’t think about your brother and your sister, you don’t have a bright future. That is my message to the whole world – that we should think about those children who are suffering from child labour, from terrorism, from child trafficking. We need to work together for education. I would request that the young generation especially speak out. When I was in Swat (Valley), I spoke only a few words but it had a great impact.

Be grateful for your education Malala: Before (the shooting), people knew that children are deprived of education. But some children were thinking that going to school is such a burden: ‘Oh, I have to do a lot of homework, and this experiment, and this research and I’m tired.’ In other parts of the world, there were so many children who wanted to go to school, who wanted to struggle for it and who said, ‘I want to learn, I want to sit in a classroom.’

I’m really happy that people are supporting me in this cause. They do not support me, but rather they support those children for whom we are speaking.

Recognize life lessons in the classroom Malala: I would give some small advice. Even though it would look hard to you: Why am I doing a lot of homework? Why do I go to school every day and wake up early in the morning? – that’s hard for me as well to wake up early in the morning. But going to school means building up the future. When you go to school, you build up your future; you build up the future of your country.

(School) can furnish and can polish your talent. It can polish your skills, so tomorrow you can get a better job, you can live a better life. If you are an artist, in school you will learn more about your art.

You also learn other basic things. You learn in a friendly environment about how we would live with each other. We sit on the same bench – it shows equality; it shows that all are equal.

Brothers Craig and Marc Kielburger founded a platform for social change that includes the international charity, Free The Children, the social enterprise, Me to We, and the youth empowerment movement, We Day.

© Copyright (c) The Regina Leader-Post

CITIZENSHIP STUDIES GRADE 9: CITIZENS CONNECTED TO SELF, COMMUNITY, AND PLACE

Part A

Broad Area of Citizenship

“Diversity is a fundamental aspect of human interaction. Living together as members of society requires understanding and appreciation of human diversity and diverse perspectives.” (Social Studies 9 (2009).  Ministry of Education) This area of citizenship aims to develop citizens who value and demonstrate a commitment to understanding the connections between people, the societies they create, and the environment in which they live, and to make sense of the interconnectedness of these concepts as citizens, connectedness to community, the natural environment and consider their place as a global citizen.  They do this by reflecting upon the choices they make and the impact of those choices on self and others and their community both near and far.  It is through the exploration of citizenship responsibilities inherent in these relationships at a local, regional, provincial, national, and global level that their citizenship is examined.

Overview and Desired Results of Citizenship Study

Students consider the influence of history on the development of worldviews and consider how to respectfully deal with diversity in their world. Students consider society’s relationship with the natural environment and how that relationship impacted the development of society. They reflect on the repercussions that diverse perspectives relating to the use of nature have on the ongoing maintenance of place. The effects of empire building and territorial expansion on specific populations, notably Indigenous people is examined. Trade and transportation within the developing society are analyzed from both a historical and contemporary view. Students consider their role as citizens and their responsibility to sustain the needs of the collective common good in contemporary Canada.

Enduring Understandings of Citizenship Study

Inquiries in this year have students examine what constitutes a society.  In their research students compare factors that shape worldviews including time, place, culture, language, religion, gender identity, socio-economic situations and education, and how these factors impacted the recording of historical events and perspectives.

As students seek to understand the relationship between culture, the use of land and resources, and the impacts of historical events, they begin to appreciate personal and cultural identities and acknowledge their influences on any contemporary society.

 

Students will understand that:

  • History and current events are understood through diverse historical perspectives.
  • Democracy requires discussion and consideration of alternate points of view in order to find a balance between individual perspectives.
  • Citizens value the needs of the collective common good and consider how their actions impact the collective well-being.
  • Canadian multi-cultural policies challenge citizenship tenets and require consideration of multiple perspectives.
  • Canada’s history includes First Nations, Métis, and Inuit governance and perspectives and each have contributed to Canadian identity.
  • Decision-making is a complex process with far-reaching impacts.
  • Engaged citizens strive to be knowledgeable, uphold their rights, and act on their responsibilities.

Inferences to make:

  • Empathy requires understanding and appreciation of another’s perspective.
  • Citizens value the need of the collective common good and consider how their actions impact the collective well-being.
  • Citizens will develop the ability and willingness to contribute to collective well-being through their personal and collective decisions and actions.
  • Enduring understandings and questions stimulate thinking, guide the inquiry and are linked to outcomes.
  • They point to the “big ideas” in the area of inquiry and should be considered and reconsidered as the inquiry progresses.
  • Answers to these questions form the evidence of learning at the end of study.

Knowledge and Skill Development

Students will be able to:

  • Expand/extend a sense of identity with respect to local, regional, national, and global diversities;
  • Exhibit an awareness and understanding of natural environmental issues on a local, regional, national, and global level; and,
  • Model being active and responsible citizens.

Essential Questions

  • What is government’s responsibility to ensure common good?
  • How should citizens respond to marginalization?
  • How does the impact of the environment affect the development of society?
  • What are the impacts of supporting my life-style on the local and global community?
  • What role does empathy play in Citizenship?
  • What does it mean to be Canadian?
Essential Questions are open-ended questions that are continually revisited, encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study, form the evidence of understanding and frame the assessment at the end of the study.

Curriculum Outcomes and Indicators

Student friendly outcomes should be posted throughout the inquiry and continually referenced so the goals of the learning are clearly available to students.

Sask. Curriculum Outcomes: Student Friendly Outcomes

DR9.3

Assess the relationship of the natural environment in the development of a society.

Student Friendly:  Evaluate the relationship between the natural environment and the development of a society.

Indicators:

  • Explain the influence of the major water systems, the topography, and the climate on the ways of life and worldviews in the societies studied.
  • Connect the characteristics of the natural environment with the settlement and movement of people in the societies studied.
  • Give examples of ways in which the natural environment influenced technological development in the societies studied.
  • Give examples of ways in which the development of societies studied impacted the natural environment.
  • Explain the effect of the natural environment in the progress or decline of the societies studied.
  • Analyze the influence of the natural environment on the territorial expansion, colonization, or empire-building in the societies studied.
  • Analyze the effects of colonization, territorial expansion, and empire-building on the natural environment.

PA 9.3

Investigate the roles and responsibilities of members of the societies studied and those of citizens in contemporary Canada.

Indicators:

  • Differentiate the criteria for citizenship in the societies studied with that in contemporary Canadian society.
  • Investigate examples of the oppression of rights of particular groups or individuals in societies studied including examples in Canada (e.g., slavery, limited franchise, restrictions on property ownership).
  • Examine the rights and responsibilities of people, as they existed within the societies studied, and compare findings to contemporary Canadian society.
  • Explain the means to achieving rights in the societies studied, and compare this to contemporary Canadian society.
  • Compile an inventory of the diverse roles and responsibilities of people within the societies studied, according to various classifications (e.g., gender, age, vocation, social class).
  • Compare roles within societies studied to those in contemporary Canadian society.

PA9.2

Analyze the impact of empire-building and territorial expansion on indigenous populations and other groups in the societies studied.

Student Friendly: Research and analyze the events of empire-building and territory expansion on the indigenous population of a society.

Indicators:

  • Research the imperial activities of a society studied, and critique the reasons for imperialism in the context of the time period (e.g., Macedonia, Rome, England, Spain, France, Mongolia).
  • Assess the treatment of indigenous populations by the imperialists in the societies studied.
  • Conduct an inquiry regarding the initial interaction of North American Aboriginal peoples with Europeans, comparing the worldviews of the two.
  • Evaluate the authenticity and validity of information sources used in the inquiry process.

Part B Learning Plan

Studies this year examine the impact of beliefs, lifestyles, responsibilities, and decisions of ancient societies on contemporary Canada.

In this inquiry students will:

  • Assess and reflect on the relationship between the natural environment and the development of society. (DR9.3)
  • Investigate and compare the roles and responsibilities of members of studied societies to contemporary society. (PA9.3)
  • Analyze the impact of empire-building and territorial expansion on indigenous populations and other groups. (PA9.2)

Questions to Guide Inquiry

Essential questions are posted and discussed with students at the start of the exploration of study. These open-ended questions are continually revisited; encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study; form the evidence of understanding; and, frame the assessment at the end of the unit of study. Guiding questions are posed to support student thinking as they explore the answers to the larger overarching questions.

Teachers may want to consider putting the questions into a “Before, During, After” chart to note the changes in students’ thinking as a result of the inquiries.

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • What is government’s responsibility to ensure common good?
    • What is common good? Is it constant?
    • Whose perspective is represented in common good?
    • What is the impact of culture and community on common good?
    • How does government balance the rights of the individual with common good?
  • How should citizens respond to marginalization?
    • How do we contribute to marginalization?
  • What is the relationship between the natural environment and the development of society?
    • What is the impact of the environment and relationship with the land on your personal beliefs and values?
    • Does your environment and your sense of place/relationship affect how your cultural and social behaviours develop?
  • What responsibility do you have to balance personal needs with the global community’s needs?
    • How do you control the impact of your actions and decisions?
    • What are your responsibilities regarding the impacts of your life-style as a global citizen?
  • What role does empathy play in citizenship?
    • What is the power and responsibility of the individual to make a difference in the world?

Throughout all of the research, students are encouraged to consider the inherent difficulties of researching ancient history.

Teacher Note

Students are examining the impact of ancient civilizations on the present.  Teachers are encouraged to have students choose or assign student groups specific ancient societies and historical indigenous societies for research. Have students study those same civilizations repeatedly so that students can gain a stronger understanding of the diversities of those civilizations.  It is in the layering of information that patterns are discovered and understandings reached. 

Historical societies include:

  • Macedonia
  • Rome
  • England
  • Spain
  • France
  • Mongolia

Historical indigenous societies include:

  • One Indigenous society of North America
  • Mesopotamia or Ancient Egypt
  • Ancient Greece or Rome
  • Aztec, Incan, or Mayan civilizations
  • Medieval Europe or Renaissance Europe
  • Ancient China or Japan

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section introduces the concepts and helps teachers gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and allow students to think about and talk about.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific and incidental teaching required to explore these outcomes.  Vocabulary should be noted here.  Record students’ current thinking for reflection throughout inquiry. This section also frames the “We do” portion of the lesson where teachers guide the initial structure of the inquiry.
Teacher Note

These questions surface students’ thoughts about their relationship with the environment prior to the research.  Teachers may choose to put students’ responses to the questions in a “Before, During, and After” chart to note the changes in thinking as a result of the inquiry.

Inquiry

What is the relationship between the natural environment and the development of society? (DR9.3)

  • What responsibility do you have to balance personal needs with the global community’s needs?
    • How do you control the impact of your actions and decisions?
    • What are your responsibilities regarding the impacts of your life-style as a global citizen?
Choose the “hook” exercise that best suits your classroom culture.

Hook 1

“It is the industrial nations of the First World, not the poor ones of the Third, that devour some 80% of the world’s resources and pose the greatest threat to the planet’s ecology”.

Rethinking Globalization: Teaching for Justice in an Unjust World

by Bill Bigelow and Bob Peterson. Pg. 65

What does this quote say to students? Have the students discuss and share their thinking about the global impact of the quote.

Hook 2

Use the Maclean’s article “How Canada Became the New Climate Change Villains” as prompt. (see appendix)

  • Agree/Disagree with the quote/article – Why?
  • What does the quote/article say about our relationship with and value of the environment to Canadian citizens?
  • What does the quote/article say about the idea of “global common good”?
  • Do you think Canadians value their environment?
  • What other questions do students have?

Environment and Development of Society

  • What is the relationship between the natural environment and the development of society?
    • What impact does the environment and your relationship with the land have on your personal beliefs and values?
    • How does your environment and where you live affect how your cultural and social behaviours develop?
    • How does the place in which we live affect the way we view the world? (Think in global perspectives)
    • Given our technological developments, does the environment have less control over our societal development than it did in the past?

Common Good and Governments

  • What is common good? Is it constant?  Whose perceptions are represented?
  • What is the impact of culture and community on common good? What impact does history have on common good?
  • What is/was government’s responsibility to ensure and sustain common good?
  • What is government’s responsibility to balance the rights of the individual in determining common good?
  • How has this responsibility changed over time and what caused the changes?
Strategies to develop and explore inquiries include:

  • Surfacing student thinking, posting, and then reflecting on thinking to note how thinking has changed and what has caused the changes.
  • Jigsaw strategy approach: Students, individually or in groups, explore similar questions, present their findings to the group. The teacher helps to note similarities, differences, themes.  Students are encouraged to develop summary statements to clarify their thinking and describe new learning.
  • Reflect on initial thinking to note how thinking has changed. What is the evidence to support the new learning? 
DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING
This section is the core of the lesson.  It describes the main activity(ies) involved.  In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the essential questions.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities.  This forms the  “They do” section of the inquiry where students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations.
Teacher Note

Students have explored these questions relating to Canada in other years, but most recently gr. 8.  Teachers may choose to review these concepts by relating initial discussions to Saskatchewan or Canada.  Student responses will indicate to teachers how much specific review of these ideas is required before moving into independent research.

See appendix for graphic organizers to support student research.

In your chosen society identify:

  • What was the impact of the environment on the:
    • settlement and movement of people?
    • technological development of society?
    • progress or decline of the society?
  • What was the impact on the environment of:
    • colonization?
    • territorial expansion?
    • empire-building?
  • How did the following influence the ways of life and worldviews of the developing society:
    • major water systems,
    • topography,
    • climate

Have a debate discussing this statement:

  • “Society has developed exactly as the environment has allowed.”

This response could also be to demonstrate Evidence of Understanding.

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section introduces the concepts and helps teachers gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and allow students to think about and talk about.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific and incidental teaching required to explore these outcomes.  Record students’ current thinking for reflection throughout inquiry. This section also frames the “We do” portion of the lesson where teachers guide the initial structure of the inquiry.
Throughout these studies have students reflect upon the difficulties and inconsistencies that are associated with reviewing history written from a singular perspective.

Evaluate the authenticity and validity of information sources used in the inquiry process.

Inquiry

In this inquiry students will explore the worldviews of past societies in order to understand the connection between past and present.

How do past societies affect my life as a citizen of contemporary Canada today? (PA 9.3)

  • Is there a pattern to the way that societies develop?
  • Do all societies follow similar patterns of development?
  • Are there commonalities of societal development?
  • What are the effects of history on societal development?

Link to essential questions

  • What is government’s responsibility to ensure common good?
    • What is common good? Is it constant?
    • Does the idea of common good change depending on the culture, community, the historical era?
  • What is government’s responsibility to balance the rights of the individual with common good?
  • Has thinking on responsibility changed over time and why?
  • Whose perspective is reflected in common good?

Investigate and compare the roles and responsibilities of members of societies studied with those of citizens in contemporary Canada.

Teachers may wish to surface initial understanding of these concepts by discussing answers in relation to Canada first.

  • Within your chosen society identify:
    • How did people become citizens?
    • What were the rights and responsibilities of citizens?
    • How did citizens achieve their rights?
  • What impact did the following have on citizenship roles and responsibilities:
    • Gender?
    • Age?
    • Vocation?
    • Social class?
  • Investigate examples of the oppression of rights of particular groups or individuals to examples in Canada:
    • slavery,
    • limited franchise,
    • restrictions on property ownership
  • What are the commonalities between societies?
  • What are the differences?
  • What themes are developing?
  • What connections to the present exist?
  • What were the authenticity and validity issues raised during the research?
  • How did the idea of common good evolve?
  • Why is this information important to know?
  • What will you do with this information?

PA9.2: What was the impact of empire-building and territorial expansion on indigenous populations and other groups in the societies studied?

  • Conduct an inquiry regarding:
    • the initial interaction of North American Indigenous peoples with Europeans,
    • compare the worldviews of the two.
  • Within your chosen society indicate:
    • the imperial activities of the society
    • critique the reasons for imperialism in the context of the time period
    • and assess the treatment of indigenous populations by the imperialists
    • identify and compare worldviews
Students will extend this inquiry to consider historic treatment of Indigenous peoples.

See appendix for graphic organizers to support student research.

These are very “big” concepts.  Throughout this study, it is critical that teachers help students to step back to see the big picture. 

  • What themes are emerging?
  • What are the similarities and differences?
  • Why do students think this is so?

The independence level of the class, will determine how much teacher direction is required to do this.

This statement is taken from an Australian Human Rights Commission Document dated 2010.

We have human rights, now for action.

The existence of human rights standards is not the source of Indigenous disadvantage. Human rights do not dispossess Indigenous peoples, they do not marginalise them, they do not cause their poverty, and they do not cause gaps in life expectancy and life outcomes. It is the denial of rights that is a large contributor to these things. The value of human rights is not in their existence; it is in their implementation.

That is the challenge for the world and for Australia with this Declaration.”

(Mick Dodson)

The Community Guide to the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.  pg. 8, Australian Human Rights Commission, 2010. Retrieved May 30, 2014 from http://www.culturalsurvival.org/sites/default/files/declaration_guide2010.pdf

  • What does this quote tell you about the state of Indigenous Peoples in the world today?
  • What has been the historical impact of empire-building, imperialism, colonialism on Indigenous people?
  • What are some of the processes for making changes?

Revisit the essential questions from an Indigenous perspective.

  • How well did governments fulfill their responsibility to ensure common good for Indigenous people?
    • Whose perspective of common good was reflected?
  • How did the idea of common good change for Indigenous cultures, and communities throughout history?
  • What is government’s responsibility to balance the rights of the individual with common good?
  • How has thinking on responsibility to Indigenous people changed over time and why?

APPLY AND EXTEND KNOWLEDGE

This section includes ideas to “wrap up” the inquiry or apply concepts explored. This section may also include additional reflective questions to promote student connection to the topic.  This forms the “You do” section – extend thinking beyond the classroom discussions and inquiry experiences.  Pose additional reflective questions that have been raised to encourage critical and creative thinking.  
  • What is Progress?
    • Have students survey people and bring their responses to the class.
    • Post survey responses and search for themes.
    • Write a reflection in your journal following the discussion.

Why Societies Collapse – TED Talk – Jared Diamond

http://www.ted.com/talks/jared_diamond_on_why_societies_collapse

EVIDENCE OF LEARNING

This section suggests ways in which students may demonstrate their understanding.  Ideal demonstrations will be in authentic performance tasks.  Each citizenship study may have its own smaller assessment piece or be compiled to support one larger performance task assessment.  Assessment pieces vary, but should allow students to demonstrate their understanding in a variety of ways.
Students should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the:

  • relationship between the natural environment and the development of society
  • roles and responsibilities of members of studied societies to contemporary society
  • impact of empire-building and territorial expansion on indigenous populations and other groups
  • difficulties that might be related to studying ancient histories regarding accuracy of documentation.

Common Good and Governments

  • How has the idea of common good changed throughout history?
    • What is common good? Is it constant?
    • How does the idea of common good change depending on the culture, community, the historical era?
    • What is/was government’s responsibility to ensure common good?
    • How has this responsibility changed over time and what caused the changes?
    • Whose perspective is reflected in common good?

The relationship between the environment and the development of society

  • How has the impact of the natural environment affected the development of society?
    • What was/is the impact of the environment and relationship with the land on the development of personal beliefs and values?
    • Does your environment and where you live affect how your cultural and social behaviours develop?
    • Has the environment always affected the way we viewed the world?
  • Why is this information important to know?
  • What will you do with this information?

STUDENT CITIZENSHIP JOURNAL OPPORTUNITIES

Students will continue to explore their understanding of their role as a Canadian citizen and reflect on their perspective in an Ongoing Journal. Consider opportunities for video journaling.  Art may be included throughout the journal; some to accompany the journal entry and some that are random drawings and sketching. The journal entries are a record of the student’s thinking and reflect their journey of citizenship exploration.

Students are keeping a Citizenship Journal to reflect upon their developing views of citizenship.  This section provides prompts for student journals.  Students are invited to choose one that interests them or propose their own. Students can also respond to any of the essential questions.

Students are encouraged to respond using a variety of genres.

  • What do you think the responsibility is for a Canadian citizen to ensure the environment is sustainable?
  • Why are Indigenous people marginalized throughout the history of society?
  • Man has been able to develop many accommodations of society over nature and the environment. Can human kind exist independent of the environment?

Part C

Inquiry Resources

Cross Curricular Connections

Language Arts

Themes

  • Personal and Philosophical: Students will reflect upon:
    • self-image and self-esteem; and,
    • self and life, and on their beliefs and values and those of their society.
  • Social, Cultural, and Historical: Students will
    • look outward and examine their relationships with others, their community, and that of the world; and,
    • consider the historical context.
  • Environmental and Technological: Students will:
    • explore the elements of the natural and constructed world and the role of technology and related developments in their society.
  • Communicative: Students will:
    • consider the role of communication in their lives and the ideas and technologies that help people become effective communicators.

Treaty Education

  • TR9: Investigate the treaty experiences of Indigenous people around the world.
  • SI9: Apply understanding of treaties and treaty making with world indigenous peoples.
  • HC9: Analyze how treaty making recognizes peoples’ rights and responsibilities.
  • TPP9: Examine the effectiveness of treaty making in addressing the circumstances of Indigenous peoples.

Health

Understanding, Skills, and Confidences (USC)

  • USC9.2 Analyze how the well-being of self, family, community, and the environment is enhanced by a comprehensive, community approach to safety.
  • USC9.3 Interpret, critique, and question the stigma associated with individuals, families, and communities living with/affected by non-curable infections/diseases, including HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis C and for those who advocate for them.
  • USC9.4 Analyze the norms and expectations (e.g., community, cultural) associated with romantic relationships as a means to effectively plan for related health promotion.
  • USC9.5 Evaluate a variety of healthy food policies and plan to participate in the development, revision, and/or implementation of a healthy food policy (e.g., fundraising, feasts, canteen sales, extra-curricular events) in the community (e.g., home, school, arena, youth center).
  • USC9.6 Analyze the health, economic, and social supports and challenges of addictions (e.g., tobacco, shopping, alcohol, gambling, Internet, drugs) on self, family, community, and the environment.
  • USC9.7 Analyze tragic death and suicide as distressing community issues and appraise what supports and health promotions exist in the community to address these issues.
  • USC9.8 Assess the ways self, family, and community facilitate healthy living for people with chronic illness.

Decision Making

  • DM9.11 Analyze the health opportunities and challenges and establish personal health promotion goal statements related to comprehensive approaches to safety, non-curable infections/diseases, romantic relationships, addictions, tragic death and suicide, chronic illness, and sexual health.

Action Planning (AP)

  • AP9.12 Design, implement, and evaluate three eight-day action plans that demonstrate responsible health promotion related to comprehensive approaches to safety, non-curable infections/diseases, romantic relationships, healthy food policies, addictions, tragic death and suicide, chronic illness, and sexual health.

Further Investigation Suggestions

  • Respond to the Macleans article – “Obama’s plan to fix climate change … and how it puts the heat on Canada”.
  • Give a response in any manner on how having a diverse cultural background has affected your identity.
  • Read the book, ‘Half Breed’ by Maria Campbell. Discuss the cultural expectations that surrounded Ms. Campbell throughout her life. Reflect your observations and thoughts in a manner of your choosing.
  • Research the movement of the national railways as track was laid down across the country of Canada. Draw a map illustrating the Railway expansion across the Western part of Canada. Highlight the significant dates and events of expansion.  Share your findings with the class in a presentation.
  • Read the story of the Louis Riel Rebellion of 1885.  Plan a class visit to Batoche Center.    What historical injustices are evident?

GLOSSARY

The following definitions are found at: Vocabulary.com

“Text from Vocabulary.com, Copyright ©1998-2016 Thinkmap, Inc.  All rights reserved.”

Acquisition – is something you acquire—a book, a skill or if you are a mogul, a company. It describes things you have purchased, things you have learned, or things you have got.

Colonization – is the act of setting up a colony away from one’s place of origin. Remember when the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock? That was the beginning of a period of colonization.

Distribution – means the passing out of something.

Empathy – n. understanding and entering into another’s feelings.  The sharing or understanding of feelings.

Empathy is different from sympathy, which is pity or sorrow for others’ misfortunes. They share a common root in -pathy, from the Greek pathos, “feeling.” Where they differ is in their prefixes: sym- means “with,” while em- means “in.” If you can empathize with someone, it’s because you have been in their place: you’ve “walked a mile in their shoes,” as the saying goes.

Empire – An empire is a group of countries or territories that are under the control of a single entity but it can be used figuratively too.

Imperialism – Imperialism is a type of government that seeks to increase its size, either by forcing (through war) or influencing (through politics) other countries to submit to their rule.

Marginalization – the social process of becoming or being made marginal (especially as a group within the larger society)

Society – refers to people living in social order. Unless you are a reclusive person, you are a part of society in some way or another.

Territory – A certain area that’s owned or under the control of someone is called a territory. Countries defend their territories during wars.

Worldview – a comprehensive view of the world and human life.

Appendix

How Canada became the new Climate Change Villain: Obama’s plan to fix climate change … and how it puts the heat on Canada

MacLeans: Andrew Leach and Luiza Ch. Savage – June 1, 2014

To combat Canada’s reputation as a climate laggard in the United States, the Harper government likes to emphasize that the two countries are committed to the same goal for reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. The federal government has even paid for advertisements in Washington stressing this very point. The problem is that the U.S. has a credible pathway to achieving its target, while Canada is, by the government’s own admission, unlikely to come close to achieving it—our current path will only get us halfway there.

The contrast could soon grow dramatically.

On June 2, U.S. President Barack Obama will unveil the centerpiece of his presidential legacy on climate change: long-awaited regulations to clamp down on existing coal-fired power plants, the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. He is already facing a backlash—not only from Republicans, but also from Democratic lawmakers running for re-election in coal-heavy states, who accuse him of waging a “war on coal.” The theme is likely to become a leading line of attack against vulnerable Democrats in the high-stakes mid-term elections in November that could flip control of the Senate to Republican hands.

But as he heads into the final stretch of his presidency, Obama appears determined to leave a legacy on climate change. Rather than quietly publish the new power-plant rule in the Federal Register, Obama plans to announce it personally, said Environmental Protection Agency administrator Gina McCarthy. The personal touch, she said, is “a strong indication of how important he sees this.”

Any muscular action by Obama will put renewed pressure on the Harper government, which is already failing to keep pace with the U.S. But it is more and more difficult to see how Canada will catch up.

Five years ago, at an international conference in Copenhagen, Canada and the U.S. both committed to the same specific goal: to reduce their annual carbon emissions to 17 per cent below 2005 levels by 2020. Both countries reported on their progress toward their targets to the United Nations earlier this year, and the difference in commitment was obvious. The U.S. plan declared proudly that “President Obama’s climate action plan will keep the U.S. on target to reach our goal.” Canada, by contrast, muttered that meeting its commitment “could be challenging.”

Although the Canadian government likes to say it is “halfway there,” a more accurate description is that absent new policies from Ottawa, Canada will have fallen short of its target by half by the time the clock runs out. Canada’s national goal for emissions is 612 million tonnes of carbon into the atmosphere in the year 2020. But Harper’s current policies have us on track to spew 734 million tonnes of carbon into the air that year. Harper has taken some steps, including tightened fuel-efficiency standards for cars and trucks. Without those measures, Canada would have been on track to emit 862 million tonnes of carbon by 2020.

The U.S. is in a similar situation, at least in the absence of stringent action on coal. It has cut emissions significantly since 2005, but without additional policies, emissions are expected to grow slowly between now and 2020 as the economy improves. The difference is that the Obama administration has laid out a real path to reaching its goal and is preparing to move down that path with the new coal-fired power plant rules. Of course, the rules will face political and legal challenges, so nothing is certain. But the Canadian government has not even identified a path that would get the country close to the goal. Instead, it has vaguely told the UN that businesses, individuals, provinces, and cities will have to take some kind of actions on their own in order for Canada to meet its target.

At the heart of the gap between the two countries is a hard economic reality for Canada: it’s likely to be much more expensive to reduce emissions here than in the U.S. Mostly this is due to the fact that our fastest-growing source of emissions—the oil sands of Alberta—are expected to continue to grow and are of significant economic importance to the country. Meanwhile, the most emissions-intensive sector in the U.S.—coal—is already declining, even without Obama’s coming policy intervention. American coal-power emissions dropped 14 per cent from 2005 to 2011 and are expected to decline another seven per cent by 2020. This has come thanks to the availability of cheap natural gas, which produces much less carbon when burned, along with reductions in total electricity demand and the impact of existing regulations targeting mercury emissions from coal-fired power. For the U.S. to meet its 2020 commitments, it will need to accelerate trends already in progress—reductions in emissions from power generation—by moving itself from coal to cheaper natural gas more quickly. For Canada to meet its targets, it will need to reverse trends in oil sands emissions growth.

It is now becoming clear that when both countries committed to the same goal back in 2005, Canada signed on for far more economic and political pain. Canada would need to impose a higher cost on carbon emissions in order to incentivize the necessary spending by industry or behaviour changes by consumers. In the U.S., it was estimated when the commitments were made that it would take the equivalent of a $35 per tonne carbon tax to meet its 2020 commitments, according to a U.S. leading think tank, Resources for the Future. In Canada, similar analyses suggested at the time that it would take $100 per tonne.

A $100 per tonne price on carbon is not being seriously contemplated by Canada. Alberta’s much-vaunted carbon “levy” is just $15 per tonne. In recent years, a $40 per tonne charge was floated but was quickly walked back by then-premier Alison Redford. Prime Minister Harper’s government once talked about requiring carbon capture and storage from all new oil sands facilities and imposing a significant price on carbon from firms that did not improve their emissions performance, but the idea faded away.

The Harper government for years has been promising to bring forward specific regulations for the oil and gas industry, but has not acted. The Prime Minister has said he wants to regulate the sector only “in concert” with Washington because unilateral measures by Ottawa would disadvantage Canadian energy producers, who sell almost all their oil and natural gas exports to the U.S. But proposals to enact similar regulatory standards for oil refineries in the U.S. have languished, and no regulation of emissions from U.S. oil and gas production are likely at the federal level.

The political path for the U.S. to reach its 2020 commitments has been full of obstacles. Aspirations for a joint cap-and-trade system died after conservatives blocked a vote on such a bill in the Senate early in Obama’s first term; Republican control of the House of Representatives since 2011 killed any further chances of such a deal.

Still, Obama has unilateral, executive-branch, rule-making powers under the federal Clean Air Act to go after coal-powered plants. Although coal consumption is declining, without new policies in place, U.S. coal power is still projected to account for 1.6 billion tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions by 2020—that’s over 30 per cent of the U.S. total emissions allowed under the Copenhagen agreement. (Likewise, without new policies, Canada’s oil and gas sector will also account for about a third of its 2020 goal for total emissions, or 200 million tonnes.)

As the President pushes forward, his party could pay a high political cost. While national Democratic activists support strong coal regulations, they’re controversial in conservative-leaning regions that could be crucial for determining which party controls the Senate. Last week, seven Democratic senators, including several in vulnerable seats up for re-election in Louisiana, Arkansas and Virginia, asked Obama to abandon an existing rule that requires future coal plants to use costly carbon capture and storage techniques to reduce emissions, arguing the technology is commercially unproven. Alison Lundergan Grimes, a Democratic candidate within reach of ousting the Republican Senate minority leader, Mitch McConnell, in Kentucky, which has many coal mines, is particularly vulnerable on the issue. “I don’t agree with the President’s war on coal,” she declared this month after her party’s nomination contest.

Canada has already adopted tough rules that require coal plants reaching the end of their useful lives to either shut down or adopt retrofits that reduce their emissions to levels comparable with a natural-gas power plant. Because such reductions are not practically achievable without the expense of carbon capture and storage, it is usually not economically viable to retrofit an old plant and they instead shut down. But those rules will have a much smaller impact on Canada’s emissions than they would if Obama announces something similar in the U.S. next month simply because we use much less coal, thanks to Canada’s greater reliance on low-emission hydroelectric and nuclear power.

If Obama’s move on coal is substantive, Canada will have a hard time keeping up. Oil sands extraction uses a lot of energy to turn water into the steam and to refine the heavy bitumen into lighter forms of oil. Carbon capture and storage may hold out the most promise for deep reductions in emissions, but this remains prohibitively expensive, adding as much as $10 per barrel to production costs, with about 50 per cent of that reflected in lower royalties and taxes from oil sands. Moreover, requiring carbon capture and storage on all new facilities could cut projected oil sands emissions by half—but that would still only get Canada to 70 per cent of its goal by 2020.

Of course, Canada could reduce emissions by reducing the production of oil sands. This would be the most expensive option. Reductions in production would likely come at a cost, to firms and provincial coffers, of $20 to $40 for each barrel of oil not produced, or $200 to $1,000 for each tonne of carbon not spewed into the atmosphere.

There’s no question the Canadian government faces a trade-off. The costs of action are high. Yet if the government decides not to take stringent action on oil and gas emissions, we will not meet our international commitments. When that happens, blame will fall on the oil sands, and, as the noisy opposition in the U.S. to the Keystone XL pipeline has shown, this will make it harder to sell oil sands products. Profitability and tax revenues will take a hit one way or the other.

With stringent coal regulations, the U.S. can reach its target with no direct regulations on oil and gas. Canada can’t. The question for the Harper government is whether it will swallow the political and economic costs of doing what it takes to meet our commitments—or come clean and admit that “halfway” to our goal is far as Canada will ever get.

Andrew Leach

Andrew Leach is the Enbridge Professor of Energy Policy at the University of Alberta, where he teaches courses on energy markets, energy investments and environmental policy. Leach’s primary research areas are climate change policy, oil sands regulation and clean energy innovation and policy.

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